Prior Constitution

The Constitution and By-Laws of the Graduate Student Government of Princeton University

Incorporating all amendments passed through April 2014. This is an informal version of the Constitution. The complete Constitution and By-Laws consist of the original documents and the text of all amendments.

CONSTITUTION OF THE GRADUATE STUDENT GOVERNMENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

ARTICLE I: NAME

  1. This organization shall be known as the Graduate Student Government of Princeton University, henceforth abbreviated as GSG.

ARTICLE II: PURPOSE

  1. The purpose of this organization is to represent and advocate the interests of graduate students at Princeton University (hereafter “The University”), excluding industrial action, to provide a forum for free and open discussion of matters affecting this community, and to provide financial and organizational support for social events within this community.

ARTICLE III: MEMBERSHIP

  1. The GSG shall consist of an Assembly and an Executive Committee. All full-time enrolled Princeton graduate students, including degree students, non-degree students, and leave-of-absence students who were enrolled the previous year, shall be electors of the Assembly, and will henceforth be referred to as members of the Graduate Student Body.

  2. In addition, “all but dissertation” (ABD) students (technically known as ETDCC students— “enrollment terminated; degree candidacy continuing”) who are in residence in Princeton or who are employed by their departments may continue their membership by payment of the membership fee.

ARTICLE IV: THE ASSEMBLY

  1. The Assembly shall be the representative body of the GSG. Representatives, Delegates, and Councilors shall be the members of the Assembly.
  2. Representatives of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body elected by and from the Academic Units of the University. Each academic department as defined by the Registrar of the University shall be considered an Academic Unit of the University; programs within departments may be represented as separate Academic Units if the majority of graduate students in those programs desire to be represented separately, subject to the approval of the Assembly in the By-Laws. Such separate representation may be terminated either by a majority vote of the members of that program, or by amendment of the By-Laws. Members of interdepartmental programs shall be represented through their department of primary affiliation, unless the program is represented separately under this Clause. In the event that an Academic Unit is abolished or removed by the University or the Assembly, that Unit’s Representative shall cease to be a member of the Assembly. In the event that a Representative ceases to be a member of the Graduate Student Body, or in the event that the Representative ceases to be a member of his or her constituency, that Representative shall cease to hold his or her seat in the Assembly.
  3. Delegates of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body chosen by the residential communities and certain interest groups specified in the By-Laws. Because the GSG wishes to establish a diverse forum for communication with the many nonacademic organizations on campus and recognizes the contributions of these organizations, Delegates shall hold every power held by Representatives of the Assembly except the right to vote in matters before the Assembly, including, but not limited to, the
  1. right to move matters before the Assembly, propose amendments to such matters, and debate. Some interest groups, as defined in the By-Laws, shall be considered voting interest groups, and shall send voting Delegates instead of non-voting Delegates. These voting Delegates shall have the right to vote on all matters before the Assembly, except for funding requests. In order to be considered a voting interest group, a group must be so designated by By-Law and must represent a unique minority viewpoint which is otherwise underrepresented. [Legislative Intent: The Assembly recognizes that certain groups of individuals on campus are likely to be underrepresented in the Assembly. The purpose of this clause is to encourage greater participation and ensure that these individuals are not excluded from the work of the Assembly. Each group should represent at least 1% of the Graduate Student Body and submit to the Parliamentary Secretary annually a list of its members.]

  2. Councilors of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body who hold positions of trust within the GSG. Councilors shall hold every right and privilege accorded to Delegates. Councilors may also be Representatives or Delegates, and Councilors who are Representatives shall exercise such rights to which they are entitled as Representatives. All Officers of the Assembly shall be Councilors. The Assembly may, by By-Law, confer the rank of Councilor on other persons. [Legislative
    Intent: Councilors are those charged with representing the Assembly or the Graduate Student Body to external parties or organizations.] The duties of a Representative shall be:

1. to bring issues and concerns from his or her constituents to the GSG Assembly.
2. to post or distribute minutes of GSG Assembly meetings as necessary,
3. to distribute information from the GSG to his or her constituents, and
4. to designate a proxy for the Assembly and Committee meetings when necessary.

6. The duties of a Delegate shall be:

1. to attend GSG Assembly meetings and
2. to bring issues and concerns from his or her constituents to the GSG Assembly
3. for voting delegates, to designate a proxy for Assembly and Committee meetings when necessary.

7. The duties of a Councilor shall be:

1. to attend GSG Assembly meetings,
2. to attend meetings of any external organizations to which they are elected or appointed,
3. to report on said meetings and other activities according to their office or position, and
4. other duties as specified by By-Law.

8. A Representative or voting Delegate shall be considered Active if he or she has attended one of the previous three Assembly meetings. Any Representative or voting Delegate who fails to attend or send a proxy for three consecutive Assembly meetings shall be subsequently considered Inactive.

9. The Assembly shall not limit the number of terms which a Representative or Delegate may serve.

10. Representatives and voting Delegates shall be elected annually, their terms not to exceed fifteen months.

11. An individual may hold no more than one Representative or voting Delegate seat in the Assembly at a time, nor serve as a Representative from more than one Academic Unit at any meeting, even if one or more of those representations is by virtue of holding a proxy.

12. In the event that no written membership list exists for a non-academic constituent group, the Delegate shall be that individual who collects a petition with the most signatures from the members of that constituency. In the event that no petition is submitted, any member of that group attending a particular meeting may be considered upon request to be the Delegate of that constituency.

13. The Assembly, by a simple majority, may vote to vacate Inactive seats.

14. The number of Representative seats shall be set by By-Law, but must in all cases equal or exceed the number of Academic Units, and each Academic Unit containing at least one member must have at least one Representative seat. Seats are to be allocated annually based on figures from the Registrar’s Office concerning the total number of graduate students in each Academic Unit. To these totals should be added the number of post-enrolled students who have paid their dues and joined the membership of the Graduate Student Body. The procedure for assigning the number of Representatives for each Academic Unit shall be:

1. Each academic unit shall be assigned one seat.
2. The number of students per Representative seat in each Academic Unit shall be calculated.
3. If the total number of Representative seats specified by the By-Laws has not been reached, an additional seat shall be allocated to the Academic Unit or Units with the highest ratio of students per seat, and steps (b) and (c) shall be repeated.

This  procedure may result in the number of Representatives being slightly higher than the number specified in the By-Laws, in the event that more than one Academic Unit has the same number of graduate students per seat at a given iteration of the assignment process and the number of such Units exceeds the number of unassigned seats.

ARTICLE V: OFFICERS OF THE GSG

1. The Officers of the GSG shall be: President, Vice President, Communications Director, Secretary, Treasurer, and Special Events Chair.

2. The president shall

  1. preside over meetings of the GSG Assembly. In the event that the President is absent or unable to preside for any reason, including joining actively in debate, the other officers shall preside as Acting President in the order in which the offices are listed above. If there is an Assistant to the President, the Assistant to the President shall succeed before the Vice President.
  2. coordinate meetings of the Executive Committee.
  3. report to the Assembly all actions of the Executive Committee since the previous Assembly meeting.
  4. schedule and call Extraordinary Meetings of the GSG Assembly.
  5. set the agenda for GSG Assembly meetings.
  6. appoint other Officers as deemed necessary by the President, such as an Assistant to the President, with the concurrence of the Executive Committee. Such Officers as may be appointed under this Clause shall not serve on the Executive Committee by virtue of their appointment under this Clause. They shall serve as Officers at the pleasure of the President.
  7. determine the legitimate holder of a position in the Assembly for the duration of an Assembly meeting at which a dispute arises and subsequently convene the Executive Committee to resolve the dispute permanently.
  8. cast tie-breaking votes in the Assembly. In the absence of the President, the Acting President shall cast such votes.

3. The Vice President shall

  1. serve as Parliamentarian of the Assembly.
  2. take the roll and record votes at Assembly meetings.
  3. maintain the record of the Constitution and By-Laws.
  4. conduct all elections within the Assembly.
  5. The Communications Director shall
  6. coordinate the updates to the GSG Web Site.
  7. coordinate the response to official correspondence.
  8. establish and maintain contacts with campus media organizations.
  9. encourage coverage of graduate concerns and GSG activities in campus media and in local and national media when appropriate.
  10. prepare and disseminate press releases when necessary.

4. The Communications Director shall

  1. coordinate the updates to the GSG Web Site.
  2. coordinate the response to official correspondence.
  3. establish and maintain contacts with campus media organizations.
  4. encourage coverage of graduate concerns and GSG activities in campus media and in local and national media when appropriate.
  5. prepare and disseminate press releases when necessary.

5. The Secretary shall

  1. record minutes of the meetings of the GSG Assembly and Executive Committee and present them at the subsequent regular Assembly meeting.
  2. maintain an organized archive of committee reports, Assembly meeting minutes, and other records.
  3. coordinate with the Communications Director the publication on the GSG Web Site of all documents presented to the GSG Assembly.

6. The Treasurer shall

  1. manage GSG financial records.
  2. file all financial reports required of the GSG.
  3. prepare and submit the Annual Budget to the Assembly.
  4. summarize the previous month’s disbursements and receipts at each regular Assembly meeting.
  5. submit a written financial report each year to be approved by the Assembly.
  6. ensure that all financial transactions are in accordance with the Constitution and budgetary By-Laws.

7. The Special Events Chair shall

  1. coordinate and organize GSG’s large social events and parties social events.

8. The terms of all Offices shall be set by By-Law but shall not exceed fifteen months. The Assembly may, by By-Law, enact term limits on such Offices as they consider appropriate.

9. Officers shall be elected annually, as directed by By-Law.

10. The Assembly may draft By-Laws to supplement the duties of the Officers.

11. Officers shall be members of the Graduate Student Body.

ARTICLE VI: PROCEDURES OF THE ASSEMBLY

1. All GSG Assembly meetings shall be open to all members of the Graduate Student Body, with the following exceptions:

  1. The Assembly may vote by a simple majority to restrict part of a meeting to Assembly members, their proxies, and those required to answer points of information. No business may be transacted during such parts of a meeting as are closed, except as specified in VI-1(b). Closed parts of a meeting shall not be minuted, unless the Assembly directs otherwise.The Assembly may reopen a meeting by a simple majority.
  2. Either the Chair or a simple majority of the Assembly may close a meeting for the transaction of judicial business under Article VIII of the Constitution. The only business that may be transacted at such a meeting, or during the closed part of such a meeting, is the specific business for which the meeting was closed. No non-judicial business may be brought to the floor of the Assembly while the meeting remains closed. Such meetings shall not be minuted, unless the Assembly directs otherwise, with the exception that the judicial decisions reached by the Assembly, if any,must be minuted.

2. Extraordinary meetings are called by the Chair when the Chair determines that there is urgent business to be conducted by the Assembly. The only business which may be transacted at an Extraordinary Meeting is the business for which the meeting was called.

3. A quorum of the Assembly shall consist of a majority of Active Representative seats.

4. When necessary for order, meetings shall be conducted by the rules of Parliamentary procedure as described in Robert’s Rules of Order, unless otherwise specified by By-Law.

5. The Assembly may decide during an Assembly meeting, by a simple majority, to hold a vote on any manner of business between Assembly meetings by e-mail or a similar means, or establish regular procedures for such votes by By-Law. A quorum for such a vote shall be a majority of Active and Inactive seats.

6. The Assembly may establish such committees as are deemed necessary and may establish their mandates and procedures. Committees may be composed partially or entirely of members of the Graduate Student Body who are not members of the Assembly.

7. The Assembly shall have the sole power to ratify the Annual Budget and approve expenditures, including expenditures which fall outside the budget.

8. Resolutions and Statutes may be passed by a simple majority of those Representatives present.

9. An absent Representative, Delegate, or Councilor, may appoint a proxy from amongst the Graduate Student Body, and the proxy shall exercise all the rights and responsibilities of that member in the meeting for which he or she was designated a proxy.

10. The Assembly may adopt By-Laws to supplement this Constitution. A By-Law or amendment to a By-Law may be enacted by a vote of two-thirds of the Active and Inactive seats of the Assembly at the meeting after which it was introduced. No By-Law may be adopted which contradicts this Constitution.

11. The Graduate Student Body may propose and adopt amendments to the By-Laws by the same procedure, outlined in Article XI, by which they may adopt amendments to this Constitution.

ARTICLE VII: THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

  1. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Officers of the GSG, as defined by Clause 1 of Article V, and the Chairs of the Standing Committees of the Assembly, as defined by the Standing Rules. An Officer who serves as the Chair of a Standing Committee shall be considered to hold a single seat on the Executive Committee.
  2. The charge of the Executive Committee shall be set by the Constitution, the By-Laws, and the Assembly.
  3. The President shall report at each regular meeting on the recent activities of the Executive Committee.
  4. The Executive Committee shall initiate action to fill vacant seats of the Assembly.
  5. The Executive Committee shall represent the Assembly in the interim between Assembly meetings.
  6. The Executive Committee shall be collectively responsible for the physical offices and property of the organization, if any. No blame or responsibility shall be attached to the Executive Committee or any member thereof if physical property of the GSG is stolen or misused through no fault of theirs.

ARTICLE VIII: JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS

1. Disputes with regard to the interpretation of the GSG Constitution or By-Laws, the determination of the legitimate holder of Representative seats, Delegate seats, Councilor positions, or other positions subject to GSG oversight, or any formal charges of negligence,incompetence, or malfeasance brought against a Representative, Delegate, Councilor, or holder of another position subject to GSG oversight shall be adjudicated according to the procedures in this Article.

2. Under regular circumstances, all such disputes will be heard by the Executive Committee, which, by simple majority, shall have the authority to

  1. determine the legitimate holder of a Representative seat, Delegate seat, Councilor position, or other position subject to GSG oversight.
  2. issue a formal Interpretation of any By-Law or portion of the Constitution in question.
  3. issue a formal Order to a member of the GSG in resolution of the matter.
  4. recommend to the Assembly the expulsion of a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor.
  5. recommend to the Assembly the exercise of any power of oversight, such as censure or recall, it may possess with respect to the accused dismiss the case without action.

3. All such actions by the Executive Committee shall be reported to the Assembly at the next Assembly meeting. The Executive Committee may, by simple majority, establish such procedures for the conduct of its hearings as it sees fit. The procedures shall be recorded by the Recording Secretary.

4. Charges against members of the Executive Committee, or against the entire Executive Committee, shall proceed directly to appeal without hearing by the Executive Committee.

5. Appeals will be heard by the full Assembly in the following cases:

  1. the Executive Committee has recommended the expulsion of a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor;
  2. the Executive Committee has recommended the exercise, by the Assembly, of any other power of oversight it may possess, such as censure or recall, with respect to the accused;
  3. charges have been brought against members of the Executive Committee, or against the entire Executive Committee; or
  4. the Assembly votes, by simple majority, to review the matter.
      1. The Assembly shall have the authority to resolve
        matters considered under Clause 4 of this Article and may, by a
        two-thirds majority of Active seats:
  1. censure an Officer;
  2. suspend an Officer for a definite period of time and appoint an Interim Officer;
  3. remove an Officer and vacate his or her Office; or
  4. ban an Officer from holding Office again or remove such a ban.
  1. The Assembly shall have the authority to follow or
    ignore the recommendation of the Executive Committee and may, by a
    two-thirds majority of Active seats:
  1. expel a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor.
  2. censure a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor.
  3. ban a member of the Assembly from serving in the Assembly or remove such a ban.
  1. The Assembly shall have the authority to override an
    Executive Committee decision on a judicial matter and may, by a
    two-thirds majority of Active seats:
  1. determine the legitimate holder of a Representative seat, Delegate
    seat, non-Officer Councilor position, or other position subject to GSG
    oversight.
  2. issue a formal Interpretation of any By-Law or portion of the Constitution in question.
  3. issue a formal Order to a member of the GSG in resolution of the matter, or revise or rescind the Executive Committee’s Order.
  4. dismiss the case without action.
  1. Under regular circumstances, the GSG Chair shall preside over appeals
    before the Assembly. If charges have been brought against the Chair, or
    if the Chair wishes to take a non-neutral position in the case, the appeal
    shall be presided over by the Parliamentary Secretary. If charges have
    been brought against both the Chair and the Parliamentary Secretary or
    against the entire Executive Committee, or if the Assembly, by a
    two-thirds majority of Active seats, decides the action is warranted, the
    Assembly shall elect one of its members Inquisitor to preside over the
    appeal.
  2. The Assembly may establish, by By-Law, such procedures for the conduct
    of its hearings as it sees fit.

ARTICLE IX: THE BUDGET

  1. All expenditures must be approved by the
    Assembly.
  2. The Assembly shall approve an Annual Budget.
  3. The Annual Budget must be balanced such that the anticipated
    expenditures shall not exceed the anticipated income.
  4. Expenditures beyond those approved in the budget must be individually
    approved by the Assembly.
  5. A record of expenditures shall be open to inspection by any member of
    the Graduate Student Body.
  6. The Assembly may appoint an Auditor.
  7. The GSG is a non-profit organization. [Legislative Intent: The State
    of New Jersey requests proof of non-profit status, ideally to be supplied
    by the Constitution of the organization in question, before granting
    approval for event liquor licenses and other similar matters.]
  8. The GSG shall not provide assistance, financial or otherwise, to any
    political cause. [Legislative Intent: Funding political causes jeopardizes
    our tax-exempt status.]

ARTICLE X: FEES

  1. An annual fee shall be assessed to all
    graduate students who are enrolled full-time and are in residence, and
    collected from such qualified others as wish to join under the provisions
    of Clause III-2. The fee shall be fifteen dollars for the 2013-2014 academic year, and shall increase by the same proportion as the University Fellowship in subsequent academic years.
  2. The income from this fee will be used to help fulfill the purpose of
    the GSG. The uses of the proceeds from this fee include, but are not
    limited to, GSG operating and communications costs, GSG events and
    activities, and support of other organizations and events that address
    graduate concerns.
  3. This article is amendable only under the conditions prescribed by
    Clause XI-6.

ARTICLE XI: AMENDMENT

  1. An amendment to this Constitution may be submitted
    for consideration either by a majority of the Assembly or a petition
    signed by at least 10% of the Graduate Student Body.
  2. Any submitted amendment must be presented in writing at a meeting of
    the Assembly and must be publicized by the GSG to the Graduate Student
    Body at least one week prior to a vote on it.
  3. An amendment shall be deemed accepted if either
  1. it is approved by a two-thirds vote of all Representative seats, or
  2. it is approved in a referendum presented to all members of the
    Graduate Student Body and receives the approval of a majority of those
    voting, which majority must be equal to or greater than one-third of
    those eligible to vote.
  1. If an amendment is submitted through a petition and the Assembly does
    not ratify it, the amendment must be referred to a referendum of the
    Graduate Student Body. The Assembly may, by a simple majority, refer any
    other proposed amendment to a referendum.
  2. Sections II, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-10, IV-13, IX-5, and XI of this
    Constitution shall be amendable only by referendum.
  3. Any proposed change in Article X or this Clause must be presented in a
    referendum to all members of the Graduate Student Body. For the change to
    be adopted, three-fifths of those voting must approve the amendment, and
    that three-fifths must be greater than or equal to one-third of those
    eligible to vote.

ARTICLE XII: RATIFICATION AND TRANSITION

  1. Ratification of this Constitution shall
    require:
  1. a two-thirds majority of all Active Assembly seats as the Assembly
    is constituted prior to the ratification of this Constitution, and
  2. approval by a referendum of the Graduate Student Body, in which a
    majority shall approve this Constitution, and that majority shall be
    equal to or greater than one-third of the Graduate Student Body.
  1. Ratification of a Constitution to replace this Constitution shall
    require similar approval to that described in Clause 1 of this
    Article.
  2. The current members of the Assembly shall remain in office until their
    existing terms expire.
  3. The current Officers shall remain in office until new elections are
    held. The current Web page Administrator shall become Corresponding
    Secretary; and the current Representative Secretary shall become
    Parliamentary Secretary.
  4. All old statutes passed by the existing Assembly, such as do not
    contradict this Constitution, shall remain in effect until repealed or
    replaced.
  5. Such By-Laws as the Assembly shall approve, to come into effect upon
    the approval of this Constitution, shall come into effect at the time of
    the ratification of this Constitution.
  6. The GSG is the successor organization to the former Graduate Student
    Union, and assumes all responsibilities and commitments of the former
    Graduate Student Union. The GSG is not a labor union, and shall not
    participate in or lend support to industrial action.
    [Legislative Intent:Legislative Intent: “support” for purposes of this clause constitutes
    monetary, material, or organizational support, the Assembly being free to
    express support, through statements of opinion or encouragement, in its
    capacity to represent and advocate the interests of the Graduate Student
    Body, as it sees fit. “Industrial action” constitutes protected union
    activities as defined by the National Labor Relations Act, and any other
    applicable law, in which material involvement by the GSG, in legal status
    an administrative unit of the employer (Princeton University; cf. GSG’s
    inheritance of non-profit status and resultant University prohibition, as
    a condition for recognition as a student organization, on disbursement of
    funds to outside organizations (qv. Rights, Rules, & Responsibilities II /
    “Use of University Monies (Including Student Fees)”)) may constitute
    illegal assistance and support (or, in the case of organizational support,
    domination) to a labor union by an employer under Section 8(a)(2) of that
    Act.

BY-LAWS OF THE GRADUATE STUDENT GOVERNMENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.

ARTICLE I: ASSEMBLY

  1. Size. The Assembly of the GSG shall consist of a number of Representatives equal to the number of departments and recognized programs.
  2. Apportionment. Apportionment of seats in the Assembly shall take place by January 1 and shall take effect at the regular meeting during the month of February.
  3. Recognized Programs. The following academic programs are recognized as separate Academic Units: Applied and Computational Mathematics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, History of Science, Plasma Physics, and Population Research.
  4. Organizations sending Delegates to the Assembly. The following Interest Groups shall have the right to send one Delegate each to the Assembly: the Council of International Graduate Students and the Association of Chinese Students and Scholars at Princeton University.  The communities in the following residential complexes shall have the right to send one Delegate each to the Assembly. These include (but are not limited to): the Graduate College, the Butler Apartments, the Lawrence Apartments, the Lakeside Apartments, the Stanworth Apartments, and a representative in Off-Campus Student Housing.  The Black Graduate Caucus and the Women’s Center shall each send a voting Delegate to the Assembly.
  5. Conferral of Councilor Status. Councilor status shall be conferred on graduate student representatives to the Council of the Princeton University Community.
  6. Elections.  Elections for Representatives from each Academic Unit shall take place in each academic year after the apportionment of seats and before the regular February meeting, unless an Academic Unit determines that it wishes to hold its elections at another time.  The procedures of elections for each Academic Unit shall be determined by the graduate student member of that Academic Unit but in no case shall persons banned by the Assembly from sitting in the Assembly be elected.  The Parliamentary Secretary shall notify the Graduate Student Body of the upcoming elections after the apportionment of seats.  Academic Units choosing a different time for elections must notify the Parliamentary Secretary of the time of their annual elections.  If an Academic Unit loses a seat during reapportionment but has chosen to conduct its elections at a different time, the Representatives from that Academic Unit shall select one of their members to relinquish his or her seat; that member shall become a non-voting Delegate of the duration of his or her term.  If an Academic Unit holding its elections at a different time gains a seat during reapportionment, that Academic Unit shall be notified by the Parliamentary Secretary that it shall send more Representatives whose terms shall expire at the same time as the other Representatives sent by that Academic Unit.

ARTICLE II: PROCEDURES OF THE ASSEMBLY

  1. Announcement and Agenda. An announcement of and a general agenda for each meeting shall be publicly posted at least two days before the meeting.

  1. Proxies. Proxies must be submitted in writing, such as by
    e-mail, to the Parliamentary Secretary, or, in his or her absence, the
    Chair, or they shall not be valid.

  1. Votes Between Meetings. The Executive Committee may call
    for
    a vote of the Assembly between regular Assembly meetings to decide matters it deems to be time-sensitive.

 

ARTICLE III: OFFICERS

  1. Term Limits. There shall be no term limits placed on
    any Offices.
  1. Additional Officer Duties. The following Officers shall have the following additional duties:
  1. President. Ordinarily, the President shall serve as an ex officio member of the Council of the Princeton University Community, as specified in Clause 1 of Article V of these By-Laws.
  1. Vice President. The Vice President shall maintain a mailing list of all members of the Assembly. Ordinarily, the Vice President shall serve as an ex officio member of the Council of the Princeton University Community, as specified in Clause 1 of Article V of these By-Laws.
  1. Communications Director. The Communications Director shall draft such correspondence as the Assembly may require. The Communications
    Director shall compose and distribute such newsletters as the Assembly may require. The Communications Director shall keep an organized record of official
    correspondence, and coordinate its archival with the Secretary.
  1. Secretary. The Secretary shall review GSG financial
    records annually, reporting his or her findings to the Executive
    Committee.
  1. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall be the Chair of the GSG Events Board, ex-officio.
  1. Special Events Chair. The Special Events Officer shall be a member of the Social Committee, ex-officio.
  1. Guiding Principles for Election.
    1. Nominations. Any member of the Graduate Student Body may nominate any member of the Graduate Student Body for any Office up for election. No seconds are required.
    2. Qualifications for Candidacy.
      1. Only members of the Graduate Student Body are eligible to be nominated for or to be a candidate for an Office. No person shall be eligible to be nominated for or to be a candidate for an Office if they would not be qualified to hold said Office for any other reason specified in the GSG By-Laws or Constitution (e.g., Paragraph (m) of Clause 5 of this Article, Clause 8 of this Article, etc.)
      2. In the case of Balloting by the Graduate Student Body as described in Clause 5, the Election Committee as defined in Clause 5 (a) shall determine whether or not a nominee/candidate is qualified on these grounds. In the case of Balloting by the Assembly as described in Clause 6, the Parliamentary Secretary shall determine whether or not a nominee/candidate is qualified on these grounds. The above parties may consult any University offices as needed to determine nominee/candidate qualifications.
      3. No person or committee shall be allowed to disqualify a nominee/candidate for any other reason.
    3. Prohibition on Multiple Candidacies. If more than one Executive Office is to appear on the same ballot, no one may be simultaneously a candidate for more than one such Office.
    4. Accession to Office.
      1. Except in the case of vacancies discussed in Paragraph (f) of Clause 7, newly elected Officers shall take office upon adjournment of the meeting at which their election was held or certified, for a term of office of one year. Should an Office not be filled, the incumbent Officer, if there is one, and while qualified and willing, shall hold Office for the beginning of the new term, that is, until a newly elected Officer takes Office or the Assembly decides to vacate the Office.
      2. Should a sitting Executive Officer be elected to different Executive Office, he or she shall be deemed to vacate their current Office upon accession to their newly elected Office.
  2. Annual Officer Elections. Every year, all Executive Offices will be filled anew by a popular election by the Graduate Student Body, using the procedures detailed in Clause 5 of this Article. In addition, the following deadlines shall apply to their respective items in Clause 5: (1) the Election Committee shall be created before the end of December; (2) the Election Plan shall be approved by the Assembly before the end of January; (3) the outcomes of this balloting shall be certified by the Assembly before the end of March.
  3. Balloting by the Graduate Student Body The following procedures and schedule shall be in force for popular elections.
    1. Election Committee.

The Assembly shall appoint an Election Committee, charged with holding a free, fair, and well-publicized election in accordance with these By-Laws and the Election Plan.

  1. Membership. No one shall serve on the committee who is not a member of the Graduate Student Body or who has accepted or intends to accept a nomination for an Office up for popular election. Should a member of the committee accept such a nomination, or nominate himself or herself, his or her membership in the committee shall be immediately and irrevocably rescinded.
  2. Numbers. Until the certification of the election, the committee shall have at least five members (including the chair) at all times. Each committee member shall be approved by the Assembly by a simple majority vote. The Assembly may also add and remove members at any time, but not a chair serving ex officio, by a simple majority. Should the number of members fall below five, the committee chair shall be empowered to appoint enough qualified persons to bring the membership up to five, those persons to serve until the Assembly fills the vacancies or the committee is dissolved. In the event that the Assembly fails to appoint five members, the committee shall still be formed and the election process shall proceed. However, the committee chair shall recruit additional members by publicizing the open seats to the Graduate Student Body.
  3. Chair. Until the certification of the election, the Parliamentary Secretary shall serve ex officio as chair of the committee, except if not qualified for membership in the committee, not willing to serve, or suspended as Parliamentary Secretary. Should such an exception occur upon creation of the committee, then the Assembly shall appoint a committee chair. Should the position of committee chair fall vacant afterward, be it due to the occurrence of such an exception or to any other reason, then the Executive Committee shall appoint a committee chair to serve until the Assembly appoints a new committee chair or the committee is dissolved.
  4. Post-election membership. After the certification of the election, the newly elected Parliamentary Secretary, if there is one, shall not replace the then-current committee chair. Rather, and until the committee is dissolved, the committee membership, as well as the chair, shall not change except due to resignation or a decision of the Assembly.
  • Election Plan. The Election Committee shall prepare an Election Plan satisfying the requirements of these By-Laws and including a detailed schedule, a description of how the election is to be executed, and a specification of the method of receipt of nominations. The committee shall submit the plan to the Assembly, in writing, for discussion, at least a week in advance of a meeting of the Assembly. The Assembly may amend the plan, and the Assembly should approve a final plan. However, if no plan is approved by the Assembly by the end of the meeting, the plan submitted by the committee, including any Asssembly approved amendments, shall be considered approved by the consent of the Assembly and shall have such force as if it were approved by the Assembly. The approved plan shall be made available for public view by the committee within 72 hours after it was approved. The Election Committee shall not change the approved Election Plan without the approval of the Assembly and shall follow the approved Election Plan; in particular, deadlines specified in the plan may not be moved without the prior approval of the Assembly by a simple majorty vote, such a vote to be held either at a meeting of the Assembly or over e-mail. The Graduate Student Body shall be notified of any such extension, and the new deadline must be at least 24 hours after such notification.
  • Communication.
    1. The Election Committee shall have the authority to communicate to the Graduate Student Body any information related to the election, by any reasonable means including electronic mass mailing. Each communication must be approved, both in the nature of its distribution and the exact wording, by a two-thirds majority of the committee. Under extraordinary circumstances, the Assembly or the Executive Committee can lower this majority to a simple majority, such change to expire after the committee is dissolved.
    2. The Election Committee shall maintain an archive of their internal electronic communications. At any time after balloting has closed, the Election Committee must permit any member of the Assembly to read said archive in full, should a member make such a request. At any time after balloting has closed, any interested member of the Assembly must also be given access to read any emails sent to or from any official Election Commitee account.
  • Nominations. Nominations shall be submitted to the Election Committee. The deadline for nominations shall be no less than two weeks after the Election Plan is made public. Within 48 hours after the nomination deadline, the committee shall inform each nominee of all Offices for which he or she was nominated, and for each of those Offices, whether they deem him or her qualified as described in Paragraph (b) of Clause 3 and the identities of the other nominees. A two-thirds majority of the committee shall be needed to deem a nominee not qualified per Paragraph (b) of Clause 3 of this Article, in which case they shall advise the nominee of the fact and of the date when the Assembly will consider the case.
  • Declaration of Candidancy and Candidate Statements.
    1. A nominee may accept a nomination for an Office by submitting a candidate statement to the Election Committee, whereupon he or she shall become a candidate for that Office. A nominee may also accept a nomination by informing the Election Committee of his or her acceptance of the nomination without submitting a candidate statement.
    2. Nominees may not accept nominations conditionally. Instructions from the nominee to the Election Committee may consist only of (a) the Office for which the candidate is accepting a nomination, and (b) which statement should be used for their candidacy.
    3. The deadline for acceptance of nominations and for submission of candidate statements shall be the same for all nominees and shall be no earlier than one week after all nominees were informed by the Election Committee of their nominations. Any candidate may submit revised candidate statements up to that same deadline. After this deadline, no candidacies or revised statements shall be accepted.
    4. Should a candidate submit several statements for the same Office and not provide further instructions, it shall be presumed that only the statement submitted last is to be considered. Should a candidate submit statements for multiple Offices and not provide further instructions, but for which he or she is otherwise qualified, it shall be presumed that only the statement submitted last is to be considered, and that the candidate is implicitly declining his or her nomination to all other Offices. Once the deadline for submission of candidate statements has past, the statements and candidacies thus discarded shall not be reconsidered under any circumstances.
    5. Should a two-thirds majority of the committee consider the content or nature of a candidate statement or portions thereof to be unlawful or against University Policies, they shall advise the candidate of the fact and of the date when the Assembly will consider the case, but that shall not be grounds to void the candidacy. The Election Committee shall be empowered to consult with University Counsel directly or indirectly for guidance in such decisions.
  • List of Candidates.
    1. After the deadline for submission of candidate statements, the Election Committee shall report in a meeting of the Assembly on all candidates for each Office and if any candidates were deemed not qualified. A simple majority of Active seats in the Assembly may overrule the committee’s decision on candidates’ qualifications. The Assembly’s sole task in this regard is as a fact finding body. In other words, the Assembly may not, under any circumstances, reinstate a candidate who it finds is, as a matter of fact, not qualified under Paragraph (b) of Clause 3.
    2. On the same occasion, the committee shall report to the Assembly on any candidate statements or portions thereof that the committee deems unlawful or against University Policy in its content or nature and state the nature of the violation. The candidate shall have the right to circulate the statement in the Assembly. Even if discussing the case in closed session, the proceedings shall be recorded in the minutes but the statement shall not be quoted therein. A simple majority of the Assembly shall be needed to uphold the committee’s opinion that any such statement or portion is unlawful or against University Policy, unless a quorum is not present, in which case the committee’s decision shall stand provisionally.
    3. The list of qualified candidates, as it stands at the end of the meeting, shall be final and shall be deemed approved by the consent of the Assembly and shall have the same force as if approved by the Assembly. No more candidacies may be added to that list.
  • Posting of Candidate Statements The list of candidates and the relevant candidate statements (with the portions deemed unlawful or against University Policy excised) shall be made available to the members of the Graduate Student Body by the Election Committee after the final list of candidates is approved and no less than two weeks before the opening of the polls.
  • Withdrawals. After the list of candidates is approved by the Assembly, withdrawals submitted to the Election Committee by the candidate shall take effect if not cancelled by the candidate within 24 hours from the time the candidate initiated contact with the Election Committee to report their withdrawal (e.g., time and date that an email was sent). If that period expires after the opening of the polls or after the committee deems it infeasible to change the ballot, then the request for withdrawal shall be ignored. Once in effect, withdrawals are final and the ballot shall be changed accordingly.
  • Universal Suffrage and Secrecy of the Ballots
    1. All members of the Graduate Student Body shall be eligible to vote. The Election Committee is empowered to consult with any University Offices it deems appropriate to verify individual voter eligibility.
    2. A two-thirds majority of the Election Committee shall have the authority to reject voter eligibility. No one shall be denied the right to vote on grounds other than not being a member of the Graduate Student Body. When reporting the outcomes of the election, the committee shall also report how many persons disputed the committee’s decision on their eligibility.
    3. The secrecy of the ballots shall be scrupulously respected. Only the committee chair may have or grant access to any individually identifiable information, and only insofar and to as few people (who must be held in confidence and may not divulge that information any further) as may be absolutely necessary for the performance of duty.
  • Quorum. For each Office on the ballot, quorum shall be met if the number of voters is at least 10% of the number of enrolled graduate students (e.g. as reported by the Graduate School or the Office of the Registrar), either at the start of the semester at which the election takes place or at the start of the academic year, whichever the Election Committee, at its own discretion, finds easier to determine.
  • Ballot. For each Office with at least one candidate, the ballot will list all candidates as well as the option “None of the above”. Write-in votes shall not be allowed. Offices for which there are no candidates shall not appear on the ballot. For each Office on the ballot, each voter may either abstain, choose exactly one candidate, or choose “None of the above”. For each Office, should the voter choose more than one option or submit a write-in vote, that vote shall not be counted.
  • Void Elections. For each Office, if there are no candidates, if quorum is not met, or if irregularities preclude the determination of a winner, then the election for that Office shall be void.
  • Disqualification from Office. For each Office for which the election was not void, any candidate receiving fewer votes than “None of the Above” (excluding abstentions and discarded ballots) shall be disqualified from holding that Office until the next Annual Officer Elections.
  • Determination of the Winner.
    1. For each Office for which the election was not void, the winner shall be the candidate with the highest number of votes, among those who were not disqualified in Paragraph (m) of this Clause. Should there be no such candidates, then there shall be no winner, and paragraph (p) of this Clause shall apply.
    2. If two or more candidates tie for the greatest number of votes, then the Assembly shall certify the tie as described in Paragraph (o) of this Clause. The tie shall then be resolved at the same meeting at which the election is certified via Balloting by the Assembly as described in Paragraphs (c-h) of Clause 6, and only those candidates tied for the lead shall be candidates for the Assembly run-off.
  • Certification. The Assembly shall certify the outcome of the election following a report by the Election Committee.
    1. The Election Committee shall report on the outcomes of the election for each Office on the ballot, including vote counts, and what, if any, discrepancies arose; whether quorum was met, and, if not, how this was determined; whether they deem any race of the election void and why; the identity of the winner or whether there was a tie; whether any candidates were disqualified from holding the Office in question and why; and whether any potential voter was not permitted to vote and why.
    2. The outcomes of the election, as reported by the Election Committee, shall be certified by the Assembly. The Assembly may, by a simple majority vote, reserve the right to choose to certify each race separately. The Assembly may, by a simple majority vote, reinstate the results of a race deemed to be void by the committee. The Assembly may, by a two-thirds vote, void an election deemed valid by the committee, but only if the Assembly holds both (1) that the election was not conducted in a fair manner or that there were irregularities in the balloting and (2) that the extent of the unfairness or irregularity was such that the outcome of the election was affected or is in doubt.
    3. All votes related to the certification shall be voice votes, unless an objection is heard by the Chair or unless such a vote or an election was held by secret ballot on the same day, in which case a secret ballot shall be held. The Assembly shall not hold such votes in closed session. All candidates shall have the right to be present during such votes, and, if applicable, to observe the counting of ballots for such votes.
    4. The outcomes as certified by the Assembly, including any non-void vote counts and any Assembly votes to break ties, shall be made public within one week of the certification and recorded in the minutes.
  • Balloting by the Assembly. The Assembly shall conduct a ballot for each Office for which the election was void or there was no winner or winners. Such balloting shall be held no later than the regular meeting after the certification of such outcome and use the procedures in Clause 6 of this Article.
  • Dissolution of the Election Committee. The Election Committee shall be dissolved at the end of the second regular Assembly meeting after the certification of the election upon delivering a final report with recommendations on the election, or on the date scheduled in the Election Plan, whichever comes first.
    • Balloting by the Assembly Balloting by the Assembly shall be held according to the following procedures.
      1. Communication. The Executive Committee shall be responsible for publicizing the election to the Graduate Student Body at least three weeks in advance of the balloting.
      2. Nominations and Candidacies. There is no deadline for nominations. Nominations shall be accepted prior to and at the meeting for which the vote is scheduled. If a nomination is submitted at least three days in advance of the meeting for which the balloting is scheduled, the Parliamentary Secretary, or, in his or her absence, the Chair, shall inform the nominee of the nomination and the election procedures, no later than two days before the meeting.
      3. Presiding Officer and Election Proctors.
        1. Being a candidate for the election shall constitute inability to preside over the election. The Parliamentary Secretary shall normally preside over elections as specified by the Constitution (Article V, Clause 3, Paragraph d). If he or she is disqualified from being the presiding officer, the highest available officer as listed in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution shall preside. If no one may preside under that Clause who is not a candidate, then the Assembly shall appoint an eligible Presiding Officer.
        2. The Assembly shall appoint three Election Proctors to count ballots, one of whom shall be the Presiding Officer mentioned above. No one shall be a proctor who is not a member of the Graduate Student Body or who has declared or intends to declare a candidacy in the election.
      4. Candidate Statements. Candidates or their proxies shall be given an opportunity to speak to the Assembly, or communicate in any other manner deemed appropriate by the presiding officer, before the vote.
      5. Openness of the Proceedings. A secret ballot shall be held, and the Election Proctors shall be responsible for counting ballots. The Assembly shall not elect Officers in closed session. All candidates shall have the right to observe the election and the counting of ballots. The vote counts as well as the results of the election shall be announced and recorded in the minutes.
      6. Balloting All candidacies must be declared before the balloting starts. Elections will be decided using the “Instant Runoff” method. For each Office, each member of the Assembly may either (a) choose “None of the Above”, or (b) order the candidates by their preference. Electors must be informed that they need not rank all candidates, and that only those candidates the elector wants in Office should be ranked.
      7. Determination of the Winner. After all ballots have been collected, the following procedure shall be used to determine the winner.The Election Proctors shall first tally the percentage of all ballots cast that chose “None of the Above”. For each candidate, the Proctors will determine the fraction of ALL ballots (including those cast for “None of the Above”) that include the candidate at any preference level; this quantity shall be called the candidates “Approval Fraction”. Any candidate whose Approval Fraction is less than the fraction of “None of the Above” ballots will be eliminated from contention from Office. If no candidate remains, then there shall be no winner. If only one candidate remains, that candidate is declared the winner.If two or more candidates remain, the following iterative process will determine the winner:
        1. For each ballot, one vote shall be awarded to the most preferred candidate that remains in contention, with the highest preference determined by that ballot. The number of votes for each candidate shall be tallied accordingly. Throughout this paragraph (6.g), any reference to the number of “votes” for a candidate refers to this number tallied.
        2. If at this point any candidate has received more than 50% of votes (EXCLUDING ballots cast for “None of the Above” and ballots that do not contain any remaining candidates) that candidate shall be declared the winner.
        3. If only two candidates remain and each has exactly 50% of the vote, the tie will be broken in the following order:
          1. the candidate with the greater number of ‘1’ votes (i.e., original first preference votes prior to the elimination of any candidates) shall be the winner;
          2. the candidate with the higher Approval Fraction shall be the winner;
          3. decision by the Chair; if Chair is unavailable, tie is broken by highest remaining Officer in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution. Under no circumstances shall either person remaining in the tie be empowered to break the tie;
          4. by lots.
        4. If three or more candidates remain, but no candidate has received more than 50% of the vote, the candidate who receives the lowest number of votes is eliminated from contention, and the process returns to step (i) of this Paragraph. If two or more candidates tie for the lowest number of votes, the eliminated candidate shall be chosen via the tiebreakers outlined in in Paragraph (h) of this Clause. Exactly one candidate shall be eliminated in each iteration of this process.
      8. Tiebreakers for Eliminated Candidates. If two or more candidates tie per 6.g.iv for the lowest number of votes in an IRV iteration, the tie shall be broken by the following sequence. If two or more candidates remain tied for the bottom at any stage of these tiebreakers, all other candidates will pass through to the next IRV iteration, and only the candidates tied for the bottom of that stage will proceed through to the next stage of these tiebreakers.
        1. Candidate with lowest Approval Fraction shall be eliminated.
        2. Candidate with fewest number of ‘1’ votes (i.e., original first preference votes prior to the elimination of any candidates) shall be eliminated.
        3. Candidate to eliminate is chosen by lot.
      9. Election of Disqualified Candidates. Within one month of the election of an Officer per this clause, if said Officer is found to be not qualified for Office per Paragraph (b) of Clause 3 of this Article, he or she shall be immediately suspended and subject to a Judicial Proceeding at the next Assembly meeting.
    • Vacancies and Suspensions
      1. Definitions.
        1. Vacancies. A vacancy shall be deemed to occur in an Executive Office when the Officer resigns, is removed by recall procedures, is removed by the Assembly, or otherwise ceases to qualify for that Office. Suspension of an Officer (Paragraph (b) of Clause 6 of Article VIII of the Constitution) causes a vacancy which can be filled by an Interim Officer.
        2. Interim Officers. Officers elected on a temporary basis for the duration of a suspension shall be termed Interim Officers and shall be equivalent to regular Officers for all purposes other than the duration of their tenure in Office.
        3. Acting Officers. Individuals appointed by the Chair or Acting Chair who occupy a vacant Office until an election fills said Office. The Office is still vacant while an Acting Officer is fulfilling duties for said Office.
      2. Notification of Vacancies. The Parliamentary Secretary shall promptly notify the Assembly of any vacancy occurring in the interim between Assembly meetings. Should the Office of Parliamentary Secretary fall vacant, the Chair shall notify the Assembly.
      3. Vacancies in the Office of Chair.
        1. Succession to the Office of Chair. Should the Office of Chair become vacant in the interim between Assembly meetings, the first person in the following line of succession who is qualified and willing shall serve as Acting Chair, without relinquishing his or her Office, upon notifying the Executive Committee of his or her acceptance of the position. The line of succession shall be as follows, but currently-suspended Officers shall be excluded in any capacity whatsoever: the Officers listed in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution; any Acting Officers in the order in which their Offices are listed in said Clause; and all Representatives in decreasing order of current continuous service as a Representative. Should two or more Representatives have an equal length of current continuous service, the tie shall be settled by lot. Additional Officers appointed under Paragraph (f) of Clause 2 of Article V of the Constitution shall not succeed by virtue of their appointment as such, an Assistant’s Chair function to preside over meetings of the Assembly (per Paragraph (a) of that Clause) notwithstanding.
        2. Powers of Acting Chair. An Acting Chair appointed under subparagraph (c-i) of this Clause shall be a member of the Executive Committee and shall discharge the powers and duties of the Chair, with the only exception that he or she shall acquire the Chair’s vote in the Executive Committee only when no elected Officers serve in the Executive Committee. The Acting Chair shall continue to serve while qualified and until a Chair is elected or a prior-entitled person qualifies to the position of Acting Chair (e.g., upon the lifting of suspension of an Officer who is higher in the ordinary line of succession). In no case shall the Acting Chair have more than one vote on the Executive Committee.
      4. Vacancies in Other Offices. Should a vacancy occur in any Executive Office other than the Office of Chair, then the Chair shall have the authority to appoint an Acting Officer under Paragraph (f) of Clause 2 of Article V of the Constitution to discharge the duties of that Office while the Office is vacant. Only if no elected Officers serve in the Executive Committee shall such Acting Officers be members of the Executive Committee and have a vote there by virtue of being Acting Officers. In no case, however, shall a person have more than one vote on the Executive Committee. The Chair shall promptly communicate to the Assembly the appointment of any Acting Officer.
      5. Filling of Vacancies. When an Office is vacant, or a vacancy is anticipated, the Chair shall give the Assembly an opportunity to fill it with a by-election at each regular Assembly meeting, subject to any requirements for advanced advertisement of the election, unless the Assembly has directed otherwise (e.g. to leave the Office vacant). By-elections shall be held under the procedures of Clause 6 of this Article. Officers thus elected shall be considered regular Officers and they shall discharge the full powers and duties of their Offices. If the vacancy did not occur through suspension, the Officer elected to fill the vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the then-current term of Office. If the vacancy occurred through suspension, then the Officer elected to fill the vacancy shall serve as an Interim Officer for the duration of said suspension. This Paragraph shall not be construed so as to restrict the judicial powers of the Assembly.
      6. Accession to Office. Officers elected to fill a vacancy shall take office immediately upon their election. Officers elected to fill a specified anticipated vacancy shall take office immediately upon the occurrence of that vacancy.
    • Recall Procedures. Any Executive Officer may be recalled or removed through either Assembly-initiated Judicial Proceedings, or via a petition submitted to the Assembly by the Graduate Student Body.
      1. Petition Standards. For the petition to be valid, each page containing signatures must state that the purpose of the petition is to attempt to remove the Officer(s) from his or her Office, and must also clearly state the name of the Officer(s) in question and the charge against said Officer(s). Each signature must be signed in ink, and must be accompanied by the printed name and department of the signee, as well as the date of the signature. Furthermore, a signature date must be within four months of the meeting at which the petition is to be presented for that signature to be valid. The petition must be submitted for validation at least two weeks before the Assembly meeting at which the petition is to be considered. The Officer subject to recall as well as the person responsible for validating the petition shall have one week to review the petition. The petition must be sent to the Assembly no less than one week prior to the meeting at which the recall is to take place.
      2. Validating the Petition Responsibility of validating the petition and its signatures per the rules of Paragraph (a) of this Clause shall rest with the first available person who is not threatened with recall, in the following order: Parliamentary Secretary, Officers as listed in order in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution, any Acting Officers in the order in which their Offices are listed in said Clause; and all Representatives in decreasing order of current continuous service as a Representative. Should two or more Representatives have an equal length of current continuous service, the tie shall be settled by lot. Signatures shall be considered valid by default. Failure to properly count and validate signatures may be considered grounds for removal from Office and/or Assembly via Judicial Proceedings against the person validating the petition. The Officer(s) in question for recall shall be allowed to view the petition and protest signatures to the person validating the petition. Also, the Assembly may inspect the full petition or a photocopy thereof at any meetings at which the petition is being considered.
      3. Recall Decision. If the petition is deemed valid, the Assembly shall take one of two actions at the next Assembly meeting, depending on the number of vaild signatures on the petition.
        1. If at least 10% of the Graduate Student Body — as determined using the same methods in Paragraph (j) of Clause 5 of this Article — has signed the petition, then the Assembly shall hold a separate Judicial Proceeding as outlined in the Constitution and By-Laws. The charges brought against the Officer(s) shall include the charges listed on the petition. If the Officer in question for recall is not removed or suspended by the Judicial Proceeding, the Officer(s) shall stay in Office and shall not be subject to another recall vote under this subparagraph (c-i) for the next four regular Assembly meetings.
        2. If at least two-thirds of the Graduate Student Body — as determined using the same methods in Paragraph (j) of Clause 5 of this Article –has signed the petition, then the Officer(s) in question shall be removed from Office immediately.Before a petition against any Officer(s) can be considered under this subparagraph (c-ii), petitioners (i.e. those organizing the petition drive) must first submit a petition against said Officer(s) for the Assembly’s consideration under subparagraph (c-i) of this Clause. If petitioners fail to remove the Officer(s) under subparagraph (c-i) and intend to use the option under subparagraph (c-ii) at a later date, they must inform the Executive Committee of their intent at any time after the Assembly’s decision at the (c-i) Judicial Proceedings. At that time, they must also supply a written statement of the specific charges against said Officers. The Executive Committee shall be responsible for publicly posting a response by the accused Officer(s) to the charges within one week of being informed of petitioner’s intent. This may include a statement by the accused on the GSG website and/or a clear link to the minutes at which the (c-i) Judicial Proceedings were held. A signature for a (c-ii) petition will be deemed valid only if it is dated after the Executive Committee has informed petitioners of the location of the accused Officer(s) response, or within one week after petitioners informed the Executive Committee of their intent, whichever comes first. [Legislative intent: Failure of the Executive Committee to post a response within the one week timeframe can not slow petitioners progress or invalidate the petition process.] Furthermore, any page including signatures for a (c-ii) petition must include verbatim the exact written charges submitted to the Executive Committee upon notification of petitioners intent, and must also inform potential signatories where the Executive Committee has posted the accused Officer(s) response to the petition.[Legislative intent: This option (c-ii) is intended as a last resort, if the Assembly is acting contrary to a clear majority of the Graduate Student Body. Thus the number of signatures required is intentionally high. Safeguards are added to help prevent misleading petitions from being circulated or false charges from being made.]

    ARTICLE IV: THE BUDGET

    1. Timing of the Annual Budget. The Annual Budget shall be presented by the Treasurer in October.

    1. Limitation on Expenditures Covered by the Budget.
      Any
      expenditure related solely to one item or event that exceeds 5% of the
      GSG budget for a given year must be brought before the Assembly for
      separate approval, even if the expenditure is to come from one of the
      allocations of the approved Annual Budget. A vote on such items shall
      be announced at least two days before the presentation of those items
      to the Assembly.

    1. Notification of Budgetary Requests. Any
      request for funding
      brought to the Assembly must be given to the Treasurer at least one
      week before the Assembly meeting at which it is to be discussed or it
      shall not be eligible for consideration. The Assembly may waive this
      rule by a vote of two-thirds of those present.

    1. The Endowment. The Assembly shall be empowered to establish
      and maintain endowments or investment funds for the benefit of the
      Graduate Student Government and the Graduate Student Body, within the
      framework of such regulations as Princeton University may establish.
    1. Annual Income. The Annual Income from such an
      endowment shall constitute part of the annual budget.
    2. Investment of Surpluses. If the continuing surplus of
      the
      GSG at the end of a given fiscal year amounts to more than
      one-quarter of the total GSG budget from that fiscal year, the
      Treasurer shall announce the fact to the Assembly within two
      months of the close of the fiscal year; two months following
      such an announcement, the Treasurer shall invest one-half of the
      amount of the continuing surplus from the close of the previous
      fiscal year in the GSG endowment or such part of the endowment as
      the Treasurer deems advisable, unless the Assembly directs
      otherwise in the intervening time.
    3. Donations. Within the framework of regulations
      established by
      Princeton University, the GSG and its Officers may solicit and
      accept donations for specific projects and for the endowment.

    ARTICLE V: POSTS WITHIN GSG APPOINTMENT

    1. Council of the Princeton University Community.
      The GSG Assembly shall elect such representatives to the Council of the
      Princeton University Community, hereafter Graduate U-Councilors, as the
      GSG is empowered to elect.
    1. Elections for the remaining seats shall occur at the last regular
      meeting of the Assembly before April 30 of each year and be publicized
      at least one month in advance. Nominations for posts and statements of
      candidacy shall be collected by the Parliamentary Secretary, who shall
      make public the list of candidates and any one position statement, not
      exceeding 500 words in length, a candidate wishes to include. Three
      days before the meeting of the Assembly, the Parliamentary Secretary
      shall distribute the list of candidates and position statements to
      members of the Assembly, and solicit proxy votes from any
      Representatives unable to attend the meeting. If desired, a
      Representative may submit a write-in vote; however, if the write-in
      candidate fails to declare candidacy before or at the meeting, that
      vote shall be disqualified. A Representative may send a proxy to cast
      his or her vote. In this case, the Representative must notify the
      Parliamentary Secretary of the proxy’s identity no less than
      twenty-four (24) hours before the meeting, or else provide the proxy
      with a signed statement of said proxy power to bring to the meeting.
    2. In no way shall the GSG restrict who may stand for election, or
      limit the number of terms a graduate student may serve as a member of
      the Council, providing that only those graduate students who will be
      enrolled in the Graduate School for the following academic year are
      eligible to stand for election. [Legislative Intent: The restriction to
      enrolled graduate students is required by the CPUC Charter.]
    3. Elected graduate U-Councilors shall serve a term of one year, to begin at the beginning of the succeeding academic year.
    4. The Assembly shall elect such number of members of the Council of the
      Princeton University Community as the Council empowers the Graduate
      Student Government to elect, save the number who shall serve ex officio.
      The Chair shall conduct the elections with the assistance of the
      Parliamentary Secretary. The Chair and Parliamentary Secretary shall
      serve ex officio. Election shall be by voice vote if and only if (1) the
      number of candidates is equal to or less than the number of
      representatives to be elected, (2) the election of all candidates would
      result in representation of all four divisions of the University within
      the graduate student delegation to the Council, including those members
      serving ex officio, and (3) no member of the Assembly objects to a voice
      vote. Otherwise, election shall be by secret ballot. Voting by secret
      ballot shall be according to the method of the multiple transferable vote.
      Each Representative shall cast a ballot containing a rank-ordered listing
      of candidates, from most preferred to least preferred, and including such
      candidates (not necessarily all) as the Representative deems appropriate.
      Through the voting process, the Assembly shall collectively place each
      candidate in a ranked position on the List from which members of the
      Council shall be determined. Tallying of votes shall be an iterative
      process. Before votes are tallied, the Chair shall be placed first on the
      List and the Parliamentary Secretary shall be placed second on the List.
      Then, the first iteration of tallying shall occur. During this iteration,
      the first-preference votes on each ballot shall be tallied for each
      candidate. If a candidate receives a majority of first preference votes,
      that candidate shall be deemed elected to the List and shall take the
      third place on the List. If no candidate receives a majority, then the
      candidate with the least votes shall be eliminated (from that iteration
      only) and the votes for that candidate reallocated to the uneliminated
      candidate receiving the highest preference on each ballot for the
      eliminated candidate. This process shall occur until one candidate
      achieves a majority. If there is a tie for candidate to be eliminated,
      all such tied candidates shall be eliminated unless doing so would
      eliminate all candidates in the iteration, in which case the Chair shall
      exercise his or her power to break ties by choosing one candidate to be
      eliminated but shall not announce this choice publically, only notifying
      the Parliamentary Secretary. Once a candidate has been elected to the
      List, that candidate shall be stricken from each ballot. Candidates
      eliminated during the previous iteration shall once again be candidates.
      In the second iteration, which shall be for the fourth place on the List,
      the top ranked non-stricken candidate votes on each ballot shall be
      counted. The process shall be repeated until each candidate shall have
      been placed on the List. Once the list has been completed, the top
      candidate on the List from each of the four divisions of the University
      shall be deemed elected, and the remaining seats in the graduate
      delegation shall be filled by those remaining on the List, starting from
      the top of the list and continuing until all seats are filled.
    5. In the event of a vacancy in the graduate student delegation to the
      Council, the candidate next on the List whose election would not violate
      the principle that all four divisions of the University must be
      represented in the graduate student delegation to the Council shall be
      deemed elected. In order to assure that no seat in the delegation shall
      remain vacant for want of candidates, the Executive Committee shall be
      empowered to add names to the bottom of the List at any time.
    6. Immediately following the Assembly meeting at which the Graduate
      U-Councilors are elected, the Parliamentary Secretary shall convene a
      meeting of the graduate members of the Council in order to elect the
      two members of the Executive Committee of the CPUC. The Chair of the
      GSG shall ordinarily serve ex officio on the Executive
      Committee, and be deemed elected by acclamation unless objected to by
      three of the graduate members of the Council. [Legislative Intent: The
      CPUC Charter requires us to provide for such an objection.] The
      Parliamentary Secretary will then solicit nominations for the remaining
      post. Election shall be by voice vote if the election is uncontested,
      by secret ballot otherwise. The Parliamentary Secretary shall not vote
      except in the case of a tie, in which case the Parliamentary Secretary
      will cast the tie-breaking vote. Ordinarily, the Parliamentary
      Secretary shall not be eligible for election to the Executive
      Committee; however, if no other member of the Council wishes the post,
      the Parliamentary Secretary shall be considered elected to the
      Executive Committee by acclamation. In the case that the Chair was
      objected to by three graduate members of the Council, the Parliamentary
      Secretary shall solicit nominations for both posts. The Chair may be
      re-nominated for a position in this case. If exactly two nominations
      are made, those two candidates shall be deemed elected to the Executive
      Committee by acclamation; otherwise, election shall be by secret
      ballot, with each member of the Council casting a vote for one
      candidate. The candidates with the most and second-most votes shall
      then be deemed elected to the Executive Committee. The Parliamentary
      Secretary may be nominated for a position, but shall become ineligible
      should this result in more than two candidates nominated for a post. As
      soon as this business is concluded, the Parliamentary Secretary shall
      adjourn the meeting and report the results to the Assembly.
    7. Graduate student members of the Council of the Princeton University
      Community shall attend all meetings of the Council of the Princeton
      University Community and the GSG Assembly.
    8. The Assembly shall be able to recall graduate student members of
      the Council of the Princeton University Community by a two-thirds vote
      of active Assembly seats.

    1. Other Committees.
      Members of other external committees shall be appointed by a simple
      majority of the Assembly. In the event that there is insufficient time
      to appoint a member to an external committee by this process, the Chair
      shall be empowered to appoint members of such committees with the
      concurrence of the Executive Committee.

    ARTICLE VI. JUDICIAL PROCEDURE OF THE ASSEMBLY


    1. Inquisitor. In the
      event that the Assembly is conducting a discussion of overriding the
      ruling of the Executive Committee on a judicial matter, or
      investigating a member or members of the Executive Committee, the
      Assembly may, by a two-thirds majority of Active seats, decide to elect
      a member of the Assembly other than the Chair to preside as Inquisitor
      and serve as Acting Chair. If both the Chair and Parliamentary
      Secretary are under investigation, the decision to appoint an
      Inquisitor shall only require a simple majority. Once the decision is
      made to appoint an Inquisitor, the election shall be by secret ballot,
      and the member of the Assembly with the greatest number of votes shall
      be deemed elected. The Inquisitor shall cast a tie-breaking vote, as
      the Chair would normally.

    1. Prosecutor. If no single person is responsible for bringing
      charges against the accused, the Assembly may elect a Prosecutor by the same procedure as they may elect an Inquisitor.

    1. Written Accusation.
      All charges of malfeasance or
      negligence
      brought against an individual or group of individuals, hereafter the
      Accused, shall be presented in writing before the Assembly and to the
      accused.

    1. Speedy Trial.
      The Accused shall have the right to a speedy
      trial, to take place not more than one month after the original
      complaint is brought to the attention of the Assembly. Notwithstanding
      this, the Accused may ask for not more than three days to prepare a
      defense.

    1. Interim Arrangements.
      The Assembly may suspend an Officer
      for
      a period of no more than one month leading up to the trial date,
      pending
      an investigation. During that time, that Officer may not exercise any
      duties of his or her Office. The Assembly may not suspend membership in
      the
      Assembly. The Executive Committee may, under extraordinary
      circumstances, vote to suspend an Officer until the time of the next
      Assembly meeting, by a two-thirds majority.

    1. Provision of Extraordinary Meetings. The Assembly may
      exercise its judicial powers either during regular meetings or at Extraordinary Meetings called for this purpose.

    1. Right to Defense. The Accused shall have the right to speak
      in his or her defense and the right to choose not to speak in his or
      her own
      defense.
      The Accused shall have the right to question his or her accuser or
      accusers, but he or she shall not be compelled to answer questions.

    1. Testimony. The
      Accused shall have the same opportunity for
      compelling testimony as his or her accusers. All members of the
      Assembly
      and
      holders of positions of trust within the GSG, with the exception of the
      Accused, shall be bound by duty to provide relevant testimony if asked.
      The Assembly may call and question witnesses if it desires. In all
      cases, the accuser or person designated as Prosecutor may question the
      witness first, the Accused second, and the Assembly last. There shall
      be no reexamination of witnesses without the consent of the Assembly.
      During the period in which the Assembly has the right to examine
      witnesses, neither the Accused nor the Prosecutor shall have any right
      to examine witnesses that they may have by virtue of being members of
      the Assembly.

    1. Order of Business. In investigations relating to the
      conduct
      of an individual, the following order of business shall be observed:
    1. The accuser or person designated as Prosecutor by the Assembly shall present the accusation.
    2. The Accused shall have the opportunity of entering a plea.
    3. The accuser or Prosecutor shall make a clear and concise
      presentation of facts, not to exceed fifteen minutes in length. The
      Assembly may extend this time limit, but a similar extension shall
      apply to the accused.
    4. The Accused shall have the opportunity to respond in a reply not to exceed fifteen minutes in length.
    5. The accuser may call witnesses.
    6. The Accused may call witnesses.
    7. The Assembly may call witnesses.
    8. The Accused shall have an opportunity to make a final statement, not to exceed five minutes in length.
    9. The Assembly may debate the charges subject to the standard rules of parliamentary procedure.

    The Assembly may dismiss charges and therefore end judicial
    proceedings by a simple majority at any time. The Assembly may, by a
    two-thirds vote, move to close the examination of witnesses or the
    final debate.

    1. Removal of Officers. If any Officer is removed by the Assembly, the Office shall immediately be considered vacant.

    1. Procedural Motions. A quorum for examination of witnesses
      and procedural motions shall be a majority of Active seats.

     

    ARTICLE VII: CONDUCT OF REFERENDA

    1. Publicity of Votes on Referenda Items. In the event that
      the Assembly votes to submit any matter, including amendments to the
      Constitution, to a public referendum, the votes of the members of the
      Assembly shall be made public.
    2. Information Packets. A packet of information shall be
      assembled and made public. The packet shall be in three parts:
    1. The first part shall be a factual information section,
      designed to explain to the voter what is being considered and
      provide unbiased answers to anticipated questions. It shall be
      written by a person or committee designated by the Assembly and
      shall be approved by a majority of the Assembly.
    2. The second part shall present the case for approval of the
      matter in question. All those who voted “aye” in the Assembly
      shall constitute a committee and report a document to the
      Assembly, which the committee shall approve by a majority vote.
    3. The third part shall present the case for disapproval of the
      matter in question. All those who voted “nay” in the Assembly
      shall constitute a committee and report a document to the
      Assembly, which the committee shall approve by a majority vote.

    The Assembly, by a simple majority, may place a limit on the length of
    each section, provided that the limits on the second and third parts shall
    be equal and large enough to allow for complete and adequate explanation
    of the views of each side. Those who abstained shall not be considered
    part of either committee established in parts (b) or (c) of this clause.
    Those who cease to be members of the Assembly between the time of the vote
    and the time of the presentation of committee reports shall not vote on
    the committee reports, nor shall members who enter the Assembly during
    this time, except that members entering the Assembly shall vote on the
    report established in part (a) of this clause. Any member of the either
    committee established in parts (b) and (c) of this clause may resign from
    that committee and not be counted among its number, but may not join the
    other committee. Whichever case of parts (b) or (c) of this clause
    attains a majority in the Assembly shall come first when the arguments are
    published. In the event that the matter of a referendum passes the
    Assembly by a vote greater than eighty-five percent in favor, the Assembly
    may waive the section described in part (c) of this clause by a two-thirds
    vote of those present, or may designate a person or persons to write this
    section, subject to the approval of the Assembly.

      • Referendum Committee. The Assembly shall establish a
        Referendum Committee to run the referendum and report back the result.
        The Parliamentary Secretary, in his or her capacity as supervisor of
        elections, shall serve as Chair of the Referendum Committee. The
        Committee shall consist of no less than three members, including the
        Chair, all of whom must be members of the Graduate Student Body.
      • Forced Referenda. In the event that a petition is delivered
        to the Assembly which would have the effect of forcing a referendum, the
        Assembly shall vote on the matter at the next Assembly meeting after the
        meeting at which the petition was submitted. The Assembly shall first
        vote on the ratification of the matter, provided that it is a matter which
        may be settled without a referendum; should it be ratified, the matter
        will be considered passed, and no referendum shall be held. Should it be
        defeated, the vote on the Assembly ratification of the matter shall be
        used for the purpose of formation of the committees outlined in Paragraph
        2. If the matter requires a referendum, the Assembly shall hold a similar
        vote on approval of the matter, and both those in favor and opposed shall
        go on record, and the committees outlined in Paragraph 2 shall be formed
        based on the result of this vote.
      • Secrecy of Ballots. Referenda shall be conducted by means
        of the secret ballot.
      • Reporting of Results. The aggregate results of referenda
        shall be publically available.