The Constitution and By-Laws of the Graduate Student Government of Princeton University
Incorporating all amendments passed through April 2014. This is an informal version of the Constitution. The complete Constitution and By-Laws consist of the original documents and the text of all amendments.
CONSTITUTION OF THE GRADUATE STUDENT GOVERNMENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
ARTICLE I: NAME
- This organization shall be known as the Graduate Student Government of Princeton University, henceforth abbreviated as GSG.
ARTICLE II: PURPOSE
The purpose of this organization is to represent and advocate the interests of graduate students at Princeton University (hereafter “The University”), excluding industrial action, to provide a forum for free and open discussion of matters affecting this community, and to provide financial and organizational support for social events within this community.
ARTICLE III: MEMBERSHIP
The GSG shall consist of an Assembly and an Executive Committee. All full-time enrolled Princeton graduate students, including degree students, non-degree students, and leave-of-absence students who were enrolled the previous year, shall be electors of the Assembly, and will henceforth be referred to as members of the Graduate Student Body.
In addition, “all but dissertation” (ABD) students (technically known as ETDCC students— “enrollment terminated; degree candidacy continuing”) who are in residence in Princeton or who are employed by their departments may continue their membership by payment of the membership fee.
ARTICLE IV: THE ASSEMBLY
- The Assembly shall be the representative body of the GSG. Representatives, Delegates, and Councilors shall be the members of the Assembly.
- Representatives of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body elected by and from the Academic Units of the University. Each academic department as defined by the Registrar of the University shall be considered an Academic Unit of the University; programs within departments may be represented as separate Academic Units if the majority of graduate students in those programs desire to be represented separately, subject to the approval of the Assembly in the By-Laws. Such separate representation may be terminated either by a majority vote of the members of that program, or by amendment of the By-Laws. Members of interdepartmental programs shall be represented through their department of primary affiliation, unless the program is represented separately under this Clause. In the event that an Academic Unit is abolished or removed by the University or the Assembly, that Unit’s Representative shall cease to be a member of the Assembly. In the event that a Representative ceases to be a member of the Graduate Student Body, or in the event that the Representative ceases to be a member of his or her constituency, that Representative shall cease to hold his or her seat in the Assembly.
- Delegates of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body chosen by the residential communities and certain interest groups specified in the By-Laws. Because the GSG wishes to establish a diverse forum for communication with the many nonacademic organizations on campus and recognizes the contributions of these organizations, Delegates shall hold every power held by Representatives of the Assembly except the right to vote in matters before the Assembly, including, but not limited to, the
right to move matters before the Assembly, propose amendments to such matters, and debate. Some interest groups, as defined in the By-Laws, shall be considered voting interest groups, and shall send voting Delegates instead of non-voting Delegates. These voting Delegates shall have the right to vote on all matters before the Assembly, except for funding requests. In order to be considered a voting interest group, a group must be so designated by By-Law and must represent a unique minority viewpoint which is otherwise underrepresented. [Legislative Intent: The Assembly recognizes that certain groups of individuals on campus are likely to be underrepresented in the Assembly. The purpose of this clause is to encourage greater participation and ensure that these individuals are not excluded from the work of the Assembly. Each group should represent at least 1% of the Graduate Student Body and submit to the Parliamentary Secretary annually a list of its members.]
Councilors of the Assembly are members of the Graduate Student Body who hold positions of trust within the GSG. Councilors shall hold every right and privilege accorded to Delegates. Councilors may also be Representatives or Delegates, and Councilors who are Representatives shall exercise such rights to which they are entitled as Representatives. All Officers of the Assembly shall be Councilors. The Assembly may, by By-Law, confer the rank of Councilor on other persons. [Legislative
Intent: Councilors are those charged with representing the Assembly or the Graduate Student Body to external parties or organizations.] The duties of a Representative shall be:
1. to bring issues and concerns from his or her constituents to the GSG Assembly.
2. to post or distribute minutes of GSG Assembly meetings as necessary,
3. to distribute information from the GSG to his or her constituents, and
4. to designate a proxy for the Assembly and Committee meetings when necessary.
6. The duties of a Delegate shall be:
1. to attend GSG Assembly meetings and
2. to bring issues and concerns from his or her constituents to the GSG Assembly
3. for voting delegates, to designate a proxy for Assembly and Committee meetings when necessary.
7. The duties of a Councilor shall be:
1. to attend GSG Assembly meetings,
2. to attend meetings of any external organizations to which they are elected or appointed,
3. to report on said meetings and other activities according to their office or position, and
4. other duties as specified by By-Law.
8. A Representative or voting Delegate shall be considered Active if he or she has attended one of the previous three Assembly meetings. Any Representative or voting Delegate who fails to attend or send a proxy for three consecutive Assembly meetings shall be subsequently considered Inactive.
9. The Assembly shall not limit the number of terms which a Representative or Delegate may serve.
10. Representatives and voting Delegates shall be elected annually, their terms not to exceed fifteen months.
11. An individual may hold no more than one Representative or voting Delegate seat in the Assembly at a time, nor serve as a Representative from more than one Academic Unit at any meeting, even if one or more of those representations is by virtue of holding a proxy.
12. In the event that no written membership list exists for a non-academic constituent group, the Delegate shall be that individual who collects a petition with the most signatures from the members of that constituency. In the event that no petition is submitted, any member of that group attending a particular meeting may be considered upon request to be the Delegate of that constituency.
13. The Assembly, by a simple majority, may vote to vacate Inactive seats.
14. The number of Representative seats shall be set by By-Law, but must in all cases equal or exceed the number of Academic Units, and each Academic Unit containing at least one member must have at least one Representative seat. Seats are to be allocated annually based on figures from the Registrar’s Office concerning the total number of graduate students in each Academic Unit. To these totals should be added the number of post-enrolled students who have paid their dues and joined the membership of the Graduate Student Body. The procedure for assigning the number of Representatives for each Academic Unit shall be:
1. Each academic unit shall be assigned one seat.
2. The number of students per Representative seat in each Academic Unit shall be calculated.
3. If the total number of Representative seats specified by the By-Laws has not been reached, an additional seat shall be allocated to the Academic Unit or Units with the highest ratio of students per seat, and steps (b) and (c) shall be repeated.
This procedure may result in the number of Representatives being slightly higher than the number specified in the By-Laws, in the event that more than one Academic Unit has the same number of graduate students per seat at a given iteration of the assignment process and the number of such Units exceeds the number of unassigned seats.
ARTICLE V: OFFICERS OF THE GSG
1. The Officers of the GSG shall be: President, Vice President, Communications Director, Secretary, Treasurer, and Special Events Chair.
2. The president shall
- preside over meetings of the GSG Assembly. In the event that the President is absent or unable to preside for any reason, including joining actively in debate, the other officers shall preside as Acting President in the order in which the offices are listed above. If there is an Assistant to the President, the Assistant to the President shall succeed before the Vice President.
- coordinate meetings of the Executive Committee.
- report to the Assembly all actions of the Executive Committee since the previous Assembly meeting.
- schedule and call Extraordinary Meetings of the GSG Assembly.
- set the agenda for GSG Assembly meetings.
- appoint other Officers as deemed necessary by the President, such as an Assistant to the President, with the concurrence of the Executive Committee. Such Officers as may be appointed under this Clause shall not serve on the Executive Committee by virtue of their appointment under this Clause. They shall serve as Officers at the pleasure of the President.
- determine the legitimate holder of a position in the Assembly for the duration of an Assembly meeting at which a dispute arises and subsequently convene the Executive Committee to resolve the dispute permanently.
- cast tie-breaking votes in the Assembly. In the absence of the President, the Acting President shall cast such votes.
3. The Vice President shall
- serve as Parliamentarian of the Assembly.
- take the roll and record votes at Assembly meetings.
- maintain the record of the Constitution and By-Laws.
- conduct all elections within the Assembly.
- The Communications Director shall
- coordinate the updates to the GSG Web Site.
- coordinate the response to official correspondence.
- establish and maintain contacts with campus media organizations.
- encourage coverage of graduate concerns and GSG activities in campus media and in local and national media when appropriate.
- prepare and disseminate press releases when necessary.
4. The Communications Director shall
- coordinate the updates to the GSG Web Site.
- coordinate the response to official correspondence.
- establish and maintain contacts with campus media organizations.
- encourage coverage of graduate concerns and GSG activities in campus media and in local and national media when appropriate.
- prepare and disseminate press releases when necessary.
5. The Secretary shall
- record minutes of the meetings of the GSG Assembly and Executive Committee and present them at the subsequent regular Assembly meeting.
- maintain an organized archive of committee reports, Assembly meeting minutes, and other records.
- coordinate with the Communications Director the publication on the GSG Web Site of all documents presented to the GSG Assembly.
6. The Treasurer shall
- manage GSG financial records.
- file all financial reports required of the GSG.
- prepare and submit the Annual Budget to the Assembly.
- summarize the previous month’s disbursements and receipts at each regular Assembly meeting.
- submit a written financial report each year to be approved by the Assembly.
- ensure that all financial transactions are in accordance with the Constitution and budgetary By-Laws.
7. The Special Events Chair shall
- coordinate and organize GSG’s large social events and parties social events.
8. The terms of all Offices shall be set by By-Law but shall not exceed fifteen months. The Assembly may, by By-Law, enact term limits on such Offices as they consider appropriate.
9. Officers shall be elected annually, as directed by By-Law.
10. The Assembly may draft By-Laws to supplement the duties of the Officers.
11. Officers shall be members of the Graduate Student Body.
ARTICLE VI: PROCEDURES OF THE ASSEMBLY
1. All GSG Assembly meetings shall be open to all members of the Graduate Student Body, with the following exceptions:
- The Assembly may vote by a simple majority to restrict part of a meeting to Assembly members, their proxies, and those required to answer points of information. No business may be transacted during such parts of a meeting as are closed, except as specified in VI-1(b). Closed parts of a meeting shall not be minuted, unless the Assembly directs otherwise.The Assembly may reopen a meeting by a simple majority.
- Either the Chair or a simple majority of the Assembly may close a meeting for the transaction of judicial business under Article VIII of the Constitution. The only business that may be transacted at such a meeting, or during the closed part of such a meeting, is the specific business for which the meeting was closed. No non-judicial business may be brought to the floor of the Assembly while the meeting remains closed. Such meetings shall not be minuted, unless the Assembly directs otherwise, with the exception that the judicial decisions reached by the Assembly, if any,must be minuted.
2. Extraordinary meetings are called by the Chair when the Chair determines that there is urgent business to be conducted by the Assembly. The only business which may be transacted at an Extraordinary Meeting is the business for which the meeting was called.
3. A quorum of the Assembly shall consist of a majority of Active Representative seats.
4. When necessary for order, meetings shall be conducted by the rules of Parliamentary procedure as described in Robert’s Rules of Order, unless otherwise specified by By-Law.
5. The Assembly may decide during an Assembly meeting, by a simple majority, to hold a vote on any manner of business between Assembly meetings by e-mail or a similar means, or establish regular procedures for such votes by By-Law. A quorum for such a vote shall be a majority of Active and Inactive seats.
6. The Assembly may establish such committees as are deemed necessary and may establish their mandates and procedures. Committees may be composed partially or entirely of members of the Graduate Student Body who are not members of the Assembly.
7. The Assembly shall have the sole power to ratify the Annual Budget and approve expenditures, including expenditures which fall outside the budget.
8. Resolutions and Statutes may be passed by a simple majority of those Representatives present.
9. An absent Representative, Delegate, or Councilor, may appoint a proxy from amongst the Graduate Student Body, and the proxy shall exercise all the rights and responsibilities of that member in the meeting for which he or she was designated a proxy.
10. The Assembly may adopt By-Laws to supplement this Constitution. A By-Law or amendment to a By-Law may be enacted by a vote of two-thirds of the Active and Inactive seats of the Assembly at the meeting after which it was introduced. No By-Law may be adopted which contradicts this Constitution.
11. The Graduate Student Body may propose and adopt amendments to the By-Laws by the same procedure, outlined in Article XI, by which they may adopt amendments to this Constitution.
ARTICLE VII: THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
- The Executive Committee shall consist of the Officers of the GSG, as defined by Clause 1 of Article V, and the Chairs of the Standing Committees of the Assembly, as defined by the Standing Rules. An Officer who serves as the Chair of a Standing Committee shall be considered to hold a single seat on the Executive Committee.
- The charge of the Executive Committee shall be set by the Constitution, the By-Laws, and the Assembly.
- The President shall report at each regular meeting on the recent activities of the Executive Committee.
- The Executive Committee shall initiate action to fill vacant seats of the Assembly.
- The Executive Committee shall represent the Assembly in the interim between Assembly meetings.
- The Executive Committee shall be collectively responsible for the physical offices and property of the organization, if any. No blame or responsibility shall be attached to the Executive Committee or any member thereof if physical property of the GSG is stolen or misused through no fault of theirs.
ARTICLE VIII: JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
1. Disputes with regard to the interpretation of the GSG Constitution or By-Laws, the determination of the legitimate holder of Representative seats, Delegate seats, Councilor positions, or other positions subject to GSG oversight, or any formal charges of negligence,incompetence, or malfeasance brought against a Representative, Delegate, Councilor, or holder of another position subject to GSG oversight shall be adjudicated according to the procedures in this Article.
2. Under regular circumstances, all such disputes will be heard by the Executive Committee, which, by simple majority, shall have the authority to
- determine the legitimate holder of a Representative seat, Delegate seat, Councilor position, or other position subject to GSG oversight.
- issue a formal Interpretation of any By-Law or portion of the Constitution in question.
- issue a formal Order to a member of the GSG in resolution of the matter.
- recommend to the Assembly the expulsion of a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor.
- recommend to the Assembly the exercise of any power of oversight, such as censure or recall, it may possess with respect to the accused dismiss the case without action.
3. All such actions by the Executive Committee shall be reported to the Assembly at the next Assembly meeting. The Executive Committee may, by simple majority, establish such procedures for the conduct of its hearings as it sees fit. The procedures shall be recorded by the Recording Secretary.
4. Charges against members of the Executive Committee, or against the entire Executive Committee, shall proceed directly to appeal without hearing by the Executive Committee.
5. Appeals will be heard by the full Assembly in the following cases:
- the Executive Committee has recommended the expulsion of a Representative, Delegate, or Councilor;
- the Executive Committee has recommended the exercise, by the Assembly, of any other power of oversight it may possess, such as censure or recall, with respect to the accused;
- charges have been brought against members of the Executive Committee, or against the entire Executive Committee; or
- the Assembly votes, by simple majority, to review the matter.
- The Assembly shall have the authority to follow or
ignore the recommendation of the Executive Committee and may, by a
two-thirds majority of Active seats:
- The Assembly shall have the authority to override an
Executive Committee decision on a judicial matter and may, by a
two-thirds majority of Active seats:
- Under regular circumstances, the GSG Chair shall preside over appeals
before the Assembly. If charges have been brought against the Chair, or
if the Chair wishes to take a non-neutral position in the case, the appeal
shall be presided over by the Parliamentary Secretary. If charges have
been brought against both the Chair and the Parliamentary Secretary or
against the entire Executive Committee, or if the Assembly, by a
two-thirds majority of Active seats, decides the action is warranted, the
Assembly shall elect one of its members Inquisitor to preside over the
- The Assembly may establish, by By-Law, such procedures for the conduct
of its hearings as it sees fit.
- All expenditures must be approved by the
- The Assembly shall approve an Annual Budget.
- The Annual Budget must be balanced such that the anticipated
expenditures shall not exceed the anticipated income.
- Expenditures beyond those approved in the budget must be individually
approved by the Assembly.
- A record of expenditures shall be open to inspection by any member of
the Graduate Student Body.
- The Assembly may appoint an Auditor.
- The GSG is a non-profit organization. [Legislative Intent: The State
of New Jersey requests proof of non-profit status, ideally to be supplied
by the Constitution of the organization in question, before granting
approval for event liquor licenses and other similar matters.]
- The GSG shall not provide assistance, financial or otherwise, to any
political cause. [Legislative Intent: Funding political causes jeopardizes
our tax-exempt status.]
- An annual fee shall be assessed to all
graduate students who are enrolled full-time and are in residence, and
collected from such qualified others as wish to join under the provisions
of Clause III-2. The fee shall be fifteen dollars for the 2013-2014 academic year, and shall increase by the same proportion as the University Fellowship in subsequent academic years.
- The income from this fee will be used to help fulfill the purpose of
the GSG. The uses of the proceeds from this fee include, but are not
limited to, GSG operating and communications costs, GSG events and
activities, and support of other organizations and events that address
- This article is amendable only under the conditions prescribed by
- An amendment to this Constitution may be submitted
for consideration either by a majority of the Assembly or a petition
signed by at least 10% of the Graduate Student Body.
- Any submitted amendment must be presented in writing at a meeting of
the Assembly and must be publicized by the GSG to the Graduate Student
Body at least one week prior to a vote on it.
- An amendment shall be deemed accepted if either
- If an amendment is submitted through a petition and the Assembly does
not ratify it, the amendment must be referred to a referendum of the
Graduate Student Body. The Assembly may, by a simple majority, refer any
other proposed amendment to a referendum.
- Sections II, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-10, IV-13, IX-5, and XI of this
Constitution shall be amendable only by referendum.
- Any proposed change in Article X or this Clause must be presented in a
referendum to all members of the Graduate Student Body. For the change to
be adopted, three-fifths of those voting must approve the amendment, and
that three-fifths must be greater than or equal to one-third of those
eligible to vote.
- Ratification of a Constitution to replace this Constitution shall
require similar approval to that described in Clause 1 of this
- The current members of the Assembly shall remain in office until their
existing terms expire.
- The current Officers shall remain in office until new elections are
held. The current Web page Administrator shall become Corresponding
Secretary; and the current Representative Secretary shall become
- All old statutes passed by the existing Assembly, such as do not
contradict this Constitution, shall remain in effect until repealed or
- Such By-Laws as the Assembly shall approve, to come into effect upon
the approval of this Constitution, shall come into effect at the time of
the ratification of this Constitution.
- The GSG is the successor organization to the former Graduate Student
Union, and assumes all responsibilities and commitments of the former
Graduate Student Union. The GSG is not a labor union, and shall not
participate in or lend support to industrial action.
[Legislative Intent:Legislative Intent: “support” for purposes of this clause constitutes
monetary, material, or organizational support, the Assembly being free to
express support, through statements of opinion or encouragement, in its
capacity to represent and advocate the interests of the Graduate Student
Body, as it sees fit. “Industrial action” constitutes protected union
activities as defined by the National Labor Relations Act, and any other
applicable law, in which material involvement by the GSG, in legal status
an administrative unit of the employer (Princeton University; cf. GSG’s
inheritance of non-profit status and resultant University prohibition, as
a condition for recognition as a student organization, on disbursement of
funds to outside organizations (qv. Rights, Rules, & Responsibilities II /
“Use of University Monies (Including Student Fees)”)) may constitute
illegal assistance and support (or, in the case of organizational support,
domination) to a labor union by an employer under Section 8(a)(2) of that
BY-LAWS OF THE GRADUATE STUDENT GOVERNMENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.
ARTICLE I: ASSEMBLY
- Size. The Assembly of the GSG shall consist of a number of Representatives equal to the number of departments and recognized programs.
- Apportionment. Apportionment of seats in the Assembly shall take place by January 1 and shall take effect at the regular meeting during the month of February.
- Recognized Programs. The following academic programs are recognized as separate Academic Units: Applied and Computational Mathematics, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, History of Science, Plasma Physics, and Population Research.
- Organizations sending Delegates to the Assembly. The following Interest Groups shall have the right to send one Delegate each to the Assembly: the Council of International Graduate Students and the Association of Chinese Students and Scholars at Princeton University. The communities in the following residential complexes shall have the right to send one Delegate each to the Assembly. These include (but are not limited to): the Graduate College, the Butler Apartments, the Lawrence Apartments, the Lakeside Apartments, the Stanworth Apartments, and a representative in Off-Campus Student Housing. The Black Graduate Caucus and the Women’s Center shall each send a voting Delegate to the Assembly.
- Conferral of Councilor Status. Councilor status shall be conferred on graduate student representatives to the Council of the Princeton University Community.
- Elections. Elections for Representatives from each Academic Unit shall take place in each academic year after the apportionment of seats and before the regular February meeting, unless an Academic Unit determines that it wishes to hold its elections at another time. The procedures of elections for each Academic Unit shall be determined by the graduate student member of that Academic Unit but in no case shall persons banned by the Assembly from sitting in the Assembly be elected. The Parliamentary Secretary shall notify the Graduate Student Body of the upcoming elections after the apportionment of seats. Academic Units choosing a different time for elections must notify the Parliamentary Secretary of the time of their annual elections. If an Academic Unit loses a seat during reapportionment but has chosen to conduct its elections at a different time, the Representatives from that Academic Unit shall select one of their members to relinquish his or her seat; that member shall become a non-voting Delegate of the duration of his or her term. If an Academic Unit holding its elections at a different time gains a seat during reapportionment, that Academic Unit shall be notified by the Parliamentary Secretary that it shall send more Representatives whose terms shall expire at the same time as the other Representatives sent by that Academic Unit.
- Announcement and Agenda. An announcement of and a general agenda for each meeting shall be publicly posted at least two days before the meeting.
- Proxies. Proxies must be submitted in writing, such as by
e-mail, to the Parliamentary Secretary, or, in his or her absence, the
Chair, or they shall not be valid.
- Votes Between Meetings. The Executive Committee may call
a vote of the Assembly between regular Assembly meetings to decide matters it deems to be time-sensitive.
- Term Limits. There shall be no term limits placed on
- Additional Officer Duties. The following Officers shall have the following additional duties:
- Guiding Principles for Election.
- Nominations. Any member of the Graduate Student Body may nominate any member of the Graduate Student Body for any Office up for election. No seconds are required.
- Qualifications for Candidacy.
- Only members of the Graduate Student Body are eligible to be nominated for or to be a candidate for an Office. No person shall be eligible to be nominated for or to be a candidate for an Office if they would not be qualified to hold said Office for any other reason specified in the GSG By-Laws or Constitution (e.g., Paragraph (m) of Clause 5 of this Article, Clause 8 of this Article, etc.)
- In the case of Balloting by the Graduate Student Body as described in Clause 5, the Election Committee as defined in Clause 5 (a) shall determine whether or not a nominee/candidate is qualified on these grounds. In the case of Balloting by the Assembly as described in Clause 6, the Parliamentary Secretary shall determine whether or not a nominee/candidate is qualified on these grounds. The above parties may consult any University offices as needed to determine nominee/candidate qualifications.
- No person or committee shall be allowed to disqualify a nominee/candidate for any other reason.
- Prohibition on Multiple Candidacies. If more than one Executive Office is to appear on the same ballot, no one may be simultaneously a candidate for more than one such Office.
- Accession to Office.
- Except in the case of vacancies discussed in Paragraph (f) of Clause 7, newly elected Officers shall take office upon adjournment of the meeting at which their election was held or certified, for a term of office of one year. Should an Office not be filled, the incumbent Officer, if there is one, and while qualified and willing, shall hold Office for the beginning of the new term, that is, until a newly elected Officer takes Office or the Assembly decides to vacate the Office.
- Should a sitting Executive Officer be elected to different Executive Office, he or she shall be deemed to vacate their current Office upon accession to their newly elected Office.
- Annual Officer Elections. Every year, all Executive Offices will be filled anew by a popular election by the Graduate Student Body, using the procedures detailed in Clause 5 of this Article. In addition, the following deadlines shall apply to their respective items in Clause 5: (1) the Election Committee shall be created before the end of December; (2) the Election Plan shall be approved by the Assembly before the end of January; (3) the outcomes of this balloting shall be certified by the Assembly before the end of March.
- Balloting by the Graduate Student Body The following procedures and schedule shall be in force for popular elections.
- Election Committee.
The Assembly shall appoint an Election Committee, charged with holding a free, fair, and well-publicized election in accordance with these By-Laws and the Election Plan.
- Membership. No one shall serve on the committee who is not a member of the Graduate Student Body or who has accepted or intends to accept a nomination for an Office up for popular election. Should a member of the committee accept such a nomination, or nominate himself or herself, his or her membership in the committee shall be immediately and irrevocably rescinded.
- Numbers. Until the certification of the election, the committee shall have at least five members (including the chair) at all times. Each committee member shall be approved by the Assembly by a simple majority vote. The Assembly may also add and remove members at any time, but not a chair serving ex officio, by a simple majority. Should the number of members fall below five, the committee chair shall be empowered to appoint enough qualified persons to bring the membership up to five, those persons to serve until the Assembly fills the vacancies or the committee is dissolved. In the event that the Assembly fails to appoint five members, the committee shall still be formed and the election process shall proceed. However, the committee chair shall recruit additional members by publicizing the open seats to the Graduate Student Body.
- Chair. Until the certification of the election, the Parliamentary Secretary shall serve ex officio as chair of the committee, except if not qualified for membership in the committee, not willing to serve, or suspended as Parliamentary Secretary. Should such an exception occur upon creation of the committee, then the Assembly shall appoint a committee chair. Should the position of committee chair fall vacant afterward, be it due to the occurrence of such an exception or to any other reason, then the Executive Committee shall appoint a committee chair to serve until the Assembly appoints a new committee chair or the committee is dissolved.
- Post-election membership. After the certification of the election, the newly elected Parliamentary Secretary, if there is one, shall not replace the then-current committee chair. Rather, and until the committee is dissolved, the committee membership, as well as the chair, shall not change except due to resignation or a decision of the Assembly.
- The Election Committee shall have the authority to communicate to the Graduate Student Body any information related to the election, by any reasonable means including electronic mass mailing. Each communication must be approved, both in the nature of its distribution and the exact wording, by a two-thirds majority of the committee. Under extraordinary circumstances, the Assembly or the Executive Committee can lower this majority to a simple majority, such change to expire after the committee is dissolved.
- The Election Committee shall maintain an archive of their internal electronic communications. At any time after balloting has closed, the Election Committee must permit any member of the Assembly to read said archive in full, should a member make such a request. At any time after balloting has closed, any interested member of the Assembly must also be given access to read any emails sent to or from any official Election Commitee account.
- A nominee may accept a nomination for an Office by submitting a candidate statement to the Election Committee, whereupon he or she shall become a candidate for that Office. A nominee may also accept a nomination by informing the Election Committee of his or her acceptance of the nomination without submitting a candidate statement.
- Nominees may not accept nominations conditionally. Instructions from the nominee to the Election Committee may consist only of (a) the Office for which the candidate is accepting a nomination, and (b) which statement should be used for their candidacy.
- The deadline for acceptance of nominations and for submission of candidate statements shall be the same for all nominees and shall be no earlier than one week after all nominees were informed by the Election Committee of their nominations. Any candidate may submit revised candidate statements up to that same deadline. After this deadline, no candidacies or revised statements shall be accepted.
- Should a candidate submit several statements for the same Office and not provide further instructions, it shall be presumed that only the statement submitted last is to be considered. Should a candidate submit statements for multiple Offices and not provide further instructions, but for which he or she is otherwise qualified, it shall be presumed that only the statement submitted last is to be considered, and that the candidate is implicitly declining his or her nomination to all other Offices. Once the deadline for submission of candidate statements has past, the statements and candidacies thus discarded shall not be reconsidered under any circumstances.
- Should a two-thirds majority of the committee consider the content or nature of a candidate statement or portions thereof to be unlawful or against University Policies, they shall advise the candidate of the fact and of the date when the Assembly will consider the case, but that shall not be grounds to void the candidacy. The Election Committee shall be empowered to consult with University Counsel directly or indirectly for guidance in such decisions.
- After the deadline for submission of candidate statements, the Election Committee shall report in a meeting of the Assembly on all candidates for each Office and if any candidates were deemed not qualified. A simple majority of Active seats in the Assembly may overrule the committee’s decision on candidates’ qualifications. The Assembly’s sole task in this regard is as a fact finding body. In other words, the Assembly may not, under any circumstances, reinstate a candidate who it finds is, as a matter of fact, not qualified under Paragraph (b) of Clause 3.
- On the same occasion, the committee shall report to the Assembly on any candidate statements or portions thereof that the committee deems unlawful or against University Policy in its content or nature and state the nature of the violation. The candidate shall have the right to circulate the statement in the Assembly. Even if discussing the case in closed session, the proceedings shall be recorded in the minutes but the statement shall not be quoted therein. A simple majority of the Assembly shall be needed to uphold the committee’s opinion that any such statement or portion is unlawful or against University Policy, unless a quorum is not present, in which case the committee’s decision shall stand provisionally.
- The list of qualified candidates, as it stands at the end of the meeting, shall be final and shall be deemed approved by the consent of the Assembly and shall have the same force as if approved by the Assembly. No more candidacies may be added to that list.
- All members of the Graduate Student Body shall be eligible to vote. The Election Committee is empowered to consult with any University Offices it deems appropriate to verify individual voter eligibility.
- A two-thirds majority of the Election Committee shall have the authority to reject voter eligibility. No one shall be denied the right to vote on grounds other than not being a member of the Graduate Student Body. When reporting the outcomes of the election, the committee shall also report how many persons disputed the committee’s decision on their eligibility.
- The secrecy of the ballots shall be scrupulously respected. Only the committee chair may have or grant access to any individually identifiable information, and only insofar and to as few people (who must be held in confidence and may not divulge that information any further) as may be absolutely necessary for the performance of duty.
- For each Office for which the election was not void, the winner shall be the candidate with the highest number of votes, among those who were not disqualified in Paragraph (m) of this Clause. Should there be no such candidates, then there shall be no winner, and paragraph (p) of this Clause shall apply.
- If two or more candidates tie for the greatest number of votes, then the Assembly shall certify the tie as described in Paragraph (o) of this Clause. The tie shall then be resolved at the same meeting at which the election is certified via Balloting by the Assembly as described in Paragraphs (c-h) of Clause 6, and only those candidates tied for the lead shall be candidates for the Assembly run-off.
- The Election Committee shall report on the outcomes of the election for each Office on the ballot, including vote counts, and what, if any, discrepancies arose; whether quorum was met, and, if not, how this was determined; whether they deem any race of the election void and why; the identity of the winner or whether there was a tie; whether any candidates were disqualified from holding the Office in question and why; and whether any potential voter was not permitted to vote and why.
- The outcomes of the election, as reported by the Election Committee, shall be certified by the Assembly. The Assembly may, by a simple majority vote, reserve the right to choose to certify each race separately. The Assembly may, by a simple majority vote, reinstate the results of a race deemed to be void by the committee. The Assembly may, by a two-thirds vote, void an election deemed valid by the committee, but only if the Assembly holds both (1) that the election was not conducted in a fair manner or that there were irregularities in the balloting and (2) that the extent of the unfairness or irregularity was such that the outcome of the election was affected or is in doubt.
- All votes related to the certification shall be voice votes, unless an objection is heard by the Chair or unless such a vote or an election was held by secret ballot on the same day, in which case a secret ballot shall be held. The Assembly shall not hold such votes in closed session. All candidates shall have the right to be present during such votes, and, if applicable, to observe the counting of ballots for such votes.
- The outcomes as certified by the Assembly, including any non-void vote counts and any Assembly votes to break ties, shall be made public within one week of the certification and recorded in the minutes.
- Balloting by the Assembly Balloting by the Assembly shall be held according to the following procedures.
- Communication. The Executive Committee shall be responsible for publicizing the election to the Graduate Student Body at least three weeks in advance of the balloting.
- Nominations and Candidacies. There is no deadline for nominations. Nominations shall be accepted prior to and at the meeting for which the vote is scheduled. If a nomination is submitted at least three days in advance of the meeting for which the balloting is scheduled, the Parliamentary Secretary, or, in his or her absence, the Chair, shall inform the nominee of the nomination and the election procedures, no later than two days before the meeting.
- Presiding Officer and Election Proctors.
- Being a candidate for the election shall constitute inability to preside over the election. The Parliamentary Secretary shall normally preside over elections as specified by the Constitution (Article V, Clause 3, Paragraph d). If he or she is disqualified from being the presiding officer, the highest available officer as listed in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution shall preside. If no one may preside under that Clause who is not a candidate, then the Assembly shall appoint an eligible Presiding Officer.
- The Assembly shall appoint three Election Proctors to count ballots, one of whom shall be the Presiding Officer mentioned above. No one shall be a proctor who is not a member of the Graduate Student Body or who has declared or intends to declare a candidacy in the election.
- Candidate Statements. Candidates or their proxies shall be given an opportunity to speak to the Assembly, or communicate in any other manner deemed appropriate by the presiding officer, before the vote.
- Openness of the Proceedings. A secret ballot shall be held, and the Election Proctors shall be responsible for counting ballots. The Assembly shall not elect Officers in closed session. All candidates shall have the right to observe the election and the counting of ballots. The vote counts as well as the results of the election shall be announced and recorded in the minutes.
- Balloting All candidacies must be declared before the balloting starts. Elections will be decided using the “Instant Runoff” method. For each Office, each member of the Assembly may either (a) choose “None of the Above”, or (b) order the candidates by their preference. Electors must be informed that they need not rank all candidates, and that only those candidates the elector wants in Office should be ranked.
- Determination of the Winner. After all ballots have been collected, the following procedure shall be used to determine the winner.The Election Proctors shall first tally the percentage of all ballots cast that chose “None of the Above”. For each candidate, the Proctors will determine the fraction of ALL ballots (including those cast for “None of the Above”) that include the candidate at any preference level; this quantity shall be called the candidates “Approval Fraction”. Any candidate whose Approval Fraction is less than the fraction of “None of the Above” ballots will be eliminated from contention from Office. If no candidate remains, then there shall be no winner. If only one candidate remains, that candidate is declared the winner.If two or more candidates remain, the following iterative process will determine the winner:
- For each ballot, one vote shall be awarded to the most preferred candidate that remains in contention, with the highest preference determined by that ballot. The number of votes for each candidate shall be tallied accordingly. Throughout this paragraph (6.g), any reference to the number of “votes” for a candidate refers to this number tallied.
- If at this point any candidate has received more than 50% of votes (EXCLUDING ballots cast for “None of the Above” and ballots that do not contain any remaining candidates) that candidate shall be declared the winner.
- If only two candidates remain and each has exactly 50% of the vote, the tie will be broken in the following order:
- the candidate with the greater number of ‘1’ votes (i.e., original first preference votes prior to the elimination of any candidates) shall be the winner;
- the candidate with the higher Approval Fraction shall be the winner;
- decision by the Chair; if Chair is unavailable, tie is broken by highest remaining Officer in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution. Under no circumstances shall either person remaining in the tie be empowered to break the tie;
- by lots.
- If three or more candidates remain, but no candidate has received more than 50% of the vote, the candidate who receives the lowest number of votes is eliminated from contention, and the process returns to step (i) of this Paragraph. If two or more candidates tie for the lowest number of votes, the eliminated candidate shall be chosen via the tiebreakers outlined in in Paragraph (h) of this Clause. Exactly one candidate shall be eliminated in each iteration of this process.
- Tiebreakers for Eliminated Candidates. If two or more candidates tie per 6.g.iv for the lowest number of votes in an IRV iteration, the tie shall be broken by the following sequence. If two or more candidates remain tied for the bottom at any stage of these tiebreakers, all other candidates will pass through to the next IRV iteration, and only the candidates tied for the bottom of that stage will proceed through to the next stage of these tiebreakers.
- Candidate with lowest Approval Fraction shall be eliminated.
- Candidate with fewest number of ‘1’ votes (i.e., original first preference votes prior to the elimination of any candidates) shall be eliminated.
- Candidate to eliminate is chosen by lot.
- Election of Disqualified Candidates. Within one month of the election of an Officer per this clause, if said Officer is found to be not qualified for Office per Paragraph (b) of Clause 3 of this Article, he or she shall be immediately suspended and subject to a Judicial Proceeding at the next Assembly meeting.
- Vacancies and Suspensions
- Vacancies. A vacancy shall be deemed to occur in an Executive Office when the Officer resigns, is removed by recall procedures, is removed by the Assembly, or otherwise ceases to qualify for that Office. Suspension of an Officer (Paragraph (b) of Clause 6 of Article VIII of the Constitution) causes a vacancy which can be filled by an Interim Officer.
- Interim Officers. Officers elected on a temporary basis for the duration of a suspension shall be termed Interim Officers and shall be equivalent to regular Officers for all purposes other than the duration of their tenure in Office.
- Acting Officers. Individuals appointed by the Chair or Acting Chair who occupy a vacant Office until an election fills said Office. The Office is still vacant while an Acting Officer is fulfilling duties for said Office.
- Notification of Vacancies. The Parliamentary Secretary shall promptly notify the Assembly of any vacancy occurring in the interim between Assembly meetings. Should the Office of Parliamentary Secretary fall vacant, the Chair shall notify the Assembly.
- Vacancies in the Office of Chair.
- Succession to the Office of Chair. Should the Office of Chair become vacant in the interim between Assembly meetings, the first person in the following line of succession who is qualified and willing shall serve as Acting Chair, without relinquishing his or her Office, upon notifying the Executive Committee of his or her acceptance of the position. The line of succession shall be as follows, but currently-suspended Officers shall be excluded in any capacity whatsoever: the Officers listed in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution; any Acting Officers in the order in which their Offices are listed in said Clause; and all Representatives in decreasing order of current continuous service as a Representative. Should two or more Representatives have an equal length of current continuous service, the tie shall be settled by lot. Additional Officers appointed under Paragraph (f) of Clause 2 of Article V of the Constitution shall not succeed by virtue of their appointment as such, an Assistant’s Chair function to preside over meetings of the Assembly (per Paragraph (a) of that Clause) notwithstanding.
- Powers of Acting Chair. An Acting Chair appointed under subparagraph (c-i) of this Clause shall be a member of the Executive Committee and shall discharge the powers and duties of the Chair, with the only exception that he or she shall acquire the Chair’s vote in the Executive Committee only when no elected Officers serve in the Executive Committee. The Acting Chair shall continue to serve while qualified and until a Chair is elected or a prior-entitled person qualifies to the position of Acting Chair (e.g., upon the lifting of suspension of an Officer who is higher in the ordinary line of succession). In no case shall the Acting Chair have more than one vote on the Executive Committee.
- Vacancies in Other Offices. Should a vacancy occur in any Executive Office other than the Office of Chair, then the Chair shall have the authority to appoint an Acting Officer under Paragraph (f) of Clause 2 of Article V of the Constitution to discharge the duties of that Office while the Office is vacant. Only if no elected Officers serve in the Executive Committee shall such Acting Officers be members of the Executive Committee and have a vote there by virtue of being Acting Officers. In no case, however, shall a person have more than one vote on the Executive Committee. The Chair shall promptly communicate to the Assembly the appointment of any Acting Officer.
- Filling of Vacancies. When an Office is vacant, or a vacancy is anticipated, the Chair shall give the Assembly an opportunity to fill it with a by-election at each regular Assembly meeting, subject to any requirements for advanced advertisement of the election, unless the Assembly has directed otherwise (e.g. to leave the Office vacant). By-elections shall be held under the procedures of Clause 6 of this Article. Officers thus elected shall be considered regular Officers and they shall discharge the full powers and duties of their Offices. If the vacancy did not occur through suspension, the Officer elected to fill the vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the then-current term of Office. If the vacancy occurred through suspension, then the Officer elected to fill the vacancy shall serve as an Interim Officer for the duration of said suspension. This Paragraph shall not be construed so as to restrict the judicial powers of the Assembly.
- Accession to Office. Officers elected to fill a vacancy shall take office immediately upon their election. Officers elected to fill a specified anticipated vacancy shall take office immediately upon the occurrence of that vacancy.
- Recall Procedures. Any Executive Officer may be recalled or removed through either Assembly-initiated Judicial Proceedings, or via a petition submitted to the Assembly by the Graduate Student Body.
- Petition Standards. For the petition to be valid, each page containing signatures must state that the purpose of the petition is to attempt to remove the Officer(s) from his or her Office, and must also clearly state the name of the Officer(s) in question and the charge against said Officer(s). Each signature must be signed in ink, and must be accompanied by the printed name and department of the signee, as well as the date of the signature. Furthermore, a signature date must be within four months of the meeting at which the petition is to be presented for that signature to be valid. The petition must be submitted for validation at least two weeks before the Assembly meeting at which the petition is to be considered. The Officer subject to recall as well as the person responsible for validating the petition shall have one week to review the petition. The petition must be sent to the Assembly no less than one week prior to the meeting at which the recall is to take place.
- Validating the Petition Responsibility of validating the petition and its signatures per the rules of Paragraph (a) of this Clause shall rest with the first available person who is not threatened with recall, in the following order: Parliamentary Secretary, Officers as listed in order in Clause 1 of Article V of the Constitution, any Acting Officers in the order in which their Offices are listed in said Clause; and all Representatives in decreasing order of current continuous service as a Representative. Should two or more Representatives have an equal length of current continuous service, the tie shall be settled by lot. Signatures shall be considered valid by default. Failure to properly count and validate signatures may be considered grounds for removal from Office and/or Assembly via Judicial Proceedings against the person validating the petition. The Officer(s) in question for recall shall be allowed to view the petition and protest signatures to the person validating the petition. Also, the Assembly may inspect the full petition or a photocopy thereof at any meetings at which the petition is being considered.
- Recall Decision. If the petition is deemed valid, the Assembly shall take one of two actions at the next Assembly meeting, depending on the number of vaild signatures on the petition.
- If at least 10% of the Graduate Student Body — as determined using the same methods in Paragraph (j) of Clause 5 of this Article — has signed the petition, then the Assembly shall hold a separate Judicial Proceeding as outlined in the Constitution and By-Laws. The charges brought against the Officer(s) shall include the charges listed on the petition. If the Officer in question for recall is not removed or suspended by the Judicial Proceeding, the Officer(s) shall stay in Office and shall not be subject to another recall vote under this subparagraph (c-i) for the next four regular Assembly meetings.
- If at least two-thirds of the Graduate Student Body — as determined using the same methods in Paragraph (j) of Clause 5 of this Article –has signed the petition, then the Officer(s) in question shall be removed from Office immediately.Before a petition against any Officer(s) can be considered under this subparagraph (c-ii), petitioners (i.e. those organizing the petition drive) must first submit a petition against said Officer(s) for the Assembly’s consideration under subparagraph (c-i) of this Clause. If petitioners fail to remove the Officer(s) under subparagraph (c-i) and intend to use the option under subparagraph (c-ii) at a later date, they must inform the Executive Committee of their intent at any time after the Assembly’s decision at the (c-i) Judicial Proceedings. At that time, they must also supply a written statement of the specific charges against said Officers. The Executive Committee shall be responsible for publicly posting a response by the accused Officer(s) to the charges within one week of being informed of petitioner’s intent. This may include a statement by the accused on the GSG website and/or a clear link to the minutes at which the (c-i) Judicial Proceedings were held. A signature for a (c-ii) petition will be deemed valid only if it is dated after the Executive Committee has informed petitioners of the location of the accused Officer(s) response, or within one week after petitioners informed the Executive Committee of their intent, whichever comes first. [Legislative intent: Failure of the Executive Committee to post a response within the one week timeframe can not slow petitioners progress or invalidate the petition process.] Furthermore, any page including signatures for a (c-ii) petition must include verbatim the exact written charges submitted to the Executive Committee upon notification of petitioners intent, and must also inform potential signatories where the Executive Committee has posted the accused Officer(s) response to the petition.[Legislative intent: This option (c-ii) is intended as a last resort, if the Assembly is acting contrary to a clear majority of the Graduate Student Body. Thus the number of signatures required is intentionally high. Safeguards are added to help prevent misleading petitions from being circulated or false charges from being made.]
- Limitation on Expenditures Covered by the Budget.
expenditure related solely to one item or event that exceeds 5% of the
GSG budget for a given year must be brought before the Assembly for
separate approval, even if the expenditure is to come from one of the
allocations of the approved Annual Budget. A vote on such items shall
be announced at least two days before the presentation of those items
to the Assembly.
- Notification of Budgetary Requests. Any
request for funding
brought to the Assembly must be given to the Treasurer at least one
week before the Assembly meeting at which it is to be discussed or it
shall not be eligible for consideration. The Assembly may waive this
rule by a vote of two-thirds of those present.
- The Endowment. The Assembly shall be empowered to establish
and maintain endowments or investment funds for the benefit of the
Graduate Student Government and the Graduate Student Body, within the
framework of such regulations as Princeton University may establish.
- Annual Income. The Annual Income from such an
endowment shall constitute part of the annual budget.
- Investment of Surpluses. If the continuing surplus of
GSG at the end of a given fiscal year amounts to more than
one-quarter of the total GSG budget from that fiscal year, the
Treasurer shall announce the fact to the Assembly within two
months of the close of the fiscal year; two months following
such an announcement, the Treasurer shall invest one-half of the
amount of the continuing surplus from the close of the previous
fiscal year in the GSG endowment or such part of the endowment as
the Treasurer deems advisable, unless the Assembly directs
otherwise in the intervening time.
- Donations. Within the framework of regulations
Princeton University, the GSG and its Officers may solicit and
accept donations for specific projects and for the endowment.
- Council of the Princeton University Community.
The GSG Assembly shall elect such representatives to the Council of the
Princeton University Community, hereafter Graduate U-Councilors, as the
GSG is empowered to elect.
- Other Committees.
Members of other external committees shall be appointed by a simple
majority of the Assembly. In the event that there is insufficient time
to appoint a member to an external committee by this process, the Chair
shall be empowered to appoint members of such committees with the
concurrence of the Executive Committee.
- Inquisitor. In the
event that the Assembly is conducting a discussion of overriding the
ruling of the Executive Committee on a judicial matter, or
investigating a member or members of the Executive Committee, the
Assembly may, by a two-thirds majority of Active seats, decide to elect
a member of the Assembly other than the Chair to preside as Inquisitor
and serve as Acting Chair. If both the Chair and Parliamentary
Secretary are under investigation, the decision to appoint an
Inquisitor shall only require a simple majority. Once the decision is
made to appoint an Inquisitor, the election shall be by secret ballot,
and the member of the Assembly with the greatest number of votes shall
be deemed elected. The Inquisitor shall cast a tie-breaking vote, as
the Chair would normally.
- Prosecutor. If no single person is responsible for bringing
charges against the accused, the Assembly may elect a Prosecutor by the same procedure as they may elect an Inquisitor.
- Written Accusation.
All charges of malfeasance or
brought against an individual or group of individuals, hereafter the
Accused, shall be presented in writing before the Assembly and to the
- Speedy Trial.
The Accused shall have the right to a speedy
trial, to take place not more than one month after the original
complaint is brought to the attention of the Assembly. Notwithstanding
this, the Accused may ask for not more than three days to prepare a
- Interim Arrangements.
The Assembly may suspend an Officer
a period of no more than one month leading up to the trial date,
an investigation. During that time, that Officer may not exercise any
duties of his or her Office. The Assembly may not suspend membership in
Assembly. The Executive Committee may, under extraordinary
circumstances, vote to suspend an Officer until the time of the next
Assembly meeting, by a two-thirds majority.
- Provision of Extraordinary Meetings. The Assembly may
exercise its judicial powers either during regular meetings or at Extraordinary Meetings called for this purpose.
- Right to Defense. The Accused shall have the right to speak
in his or her defense and the right to choose not to speak in his or
The Accused shall have the right to question his or her accuser or
accusers, but he or she shall not be compelled to answer questions.
- Testimony. The
Accused shall have the same opportunity for
compelling testimony as his or her accusers. All members of the
holders of positions of trust within the GSG, with the exception of the
Accused, shall be bound by duty to provide relevant testimony if asked.
The Assembly may call and question witnesses if it desires. In all
cases, the accuser or person designated as Prosecutor may question the
witness first, the Accused second, and the Assembly last. There shall
be no reexamination of witnesses without the consent of the Assembly.
During the period in which the Assembly has the right to examine
witnesses, neither the Accused nor the Prosecutor shall have any right
to examine witnesses that they may have by virtue of being members of
- Order of Business. In investigations relating to the
of an individual, the following order of business shall be observed:
The Assembly may dismiss charges and therefore end judicial
- Removal of Officers. If any Officer is removed by the Assembly, the Office shall immediately be considered vacant.
- Procedural Motions. A quorum for examination of witnesses
and procedural motions shall be a majority of Active seats.
- Publicity of Votes on Referenda Items. In the event that
the Assembly votes to submit any matter, including amendments to the
Constitution, to a public referendum, the votes of the members of the
Assembly shall be made public.
- Information Packets. A packet of information shall be
assembled and made public. The packet shall be in three parts:
The Assembly, by a simple majority, may place a limit on the length of
each section, provided that the limits on the second and third parts shall
be equal and large enough to allow for complete and adequate explanation
of the views of each side. Those who abstained shall not be considered
part of either committee established in parts (b) or (c) of this clause.
Those who cease to be members of the Assembly between the time of the vote
and the time of the presentation of committee reports shall not vote on
the committee reports, nor shall members who enter the Assembly during
this time, except that members entering the Assembly shall vote on the
report established in part (a) of this clause. Any member of the either
committee established in parts (b) and (c) of this clause may resign from
that committee and not be counted among its number, but may not join the
other committee. Whichever case of parts (b) or (c) of this clause
attains a majority in the Assembly shall come first when the arguments are
published. In the event that the matter of a referendum passes the
Assembly by a vote greater than eighty-five percent in favor, the Assembly
may waive the section described in part (c) of this clause by a two-thirds
vote of those present, or may designate a person or persons to write this
section, subject to the approval of the Assembly.
- Referendum Committee. The Assembly shall establish a
Referendum Committee to run the referendum and report back the result.
The Parliamentary Secretary, in his or her capacity as supervisor of
elections, shall serve as Chair of the Referendum Committee. The
Committee shall consist of no less than three members, including the
Chair, all of whom must be members of the Graduate Student Body.
- Forced Referenda. In the event that a petition is delivered
to the Assembly which would have the effect of forcing a referendum, the
Assembly shall vote on the matter at the next Assembly meeting after the
meeting at which the petition was submitted. The Assembly shall first
vote on the ratification of the matter, provided that it is a matter which
may be settled without a referendum; should it be ratified, the matter
will be considered passed, and no referendum shall be held. Should it be
defeated, the vote on the Assembly ratification of the matter shall be
used for the purpose of formation of the committees outlined in Paragraph
2. If the matter requires a referendum, the Assembly shall hold a similar
vote on approval of the matter, and both those in favor and opposed shall
go on record, and the committees outlined in Paragraph 2 shall be formed
based on the result of this vote.
- Secrecy of Ballots. Referenda shall be conducted by means
of the secret ballot.
- Reporting of Results. The aggregate results of referenda
shall be publically available.